Keystone Event Notifications

Keystone provides notifications about usage data so that 3rd party applications can use the data for billing, monitoring, or quota purposes. This document describes the current inclusions and exclusions for Keystone notifications.

Keystone currently supports two notification formats: a Basic Notification, and a Cloud Auditing Data Federation (CADF) Notification. The supported operations between the two types of notification formats are documented below.

Common Notification Structure

Notifications generated by Keystone are generated in JSON format. An external application can format them into ATOM format and publish them as a feed. Currently, all notifications are immediate, meaning they are generated when a specific event happens. Notifications all adhere to a specific top level format:

{
    "event_type": "identity.<resource_type>.<operation>",
    "message_id": "<message_id>",
    "payload": {},
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.<hostname>",
    "timestamp": "<timestamp>"
}

Where <resource_type> is a Keystone resource, such as user or project, and <operation> is a Keystone operation, such as created, deleted.

The key differences between the two notification formats (Basic and CADF), lie within the payload portion of the notification.

The priority of the notification being sent is not configurable through the Keystone configuration file. This value is defaulted to INFO for all notifications sent in Keystone’s case.

Basic Notifications

All basic notifications contain a limited amount of information, specifically, just the resource type, operation, and resource id.

The payload portion of a Basic Notification is a single key-value pair.

{
    "resource_info": <resource_id>
}

Where <resource_id> is the unique identifier assigned to the resource_type that is undergoing the <operation>.

Supported Events

The following table displays the compatibility between resource types and operations.

resource type supported operations
group create, update, delete
project create, update, delete
role create, update, delete
domain create, update, delete
user create, update, delete
trust create, delete
region create, update, delete
endpoint create, update, delete
service create, update, delete
policy create, update, delete

Note, trusts are an immutable resource, they do not support update operations.

Example Notification

This is an example of a notification sent for a newly created user:

{
    "event_type": "identity.user.created",
    "message_id": "0156ee79-b35f-4cef-ac37-d4a85f231c69",
    "payload": {
        "resource_info": "671da331c47d4e29bb6ea1d270154ec3"
    },
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2013-08-29 19:03:45.960280"
}

If the operation fails, the notification won’t be sent, and no special error notification will be sent. Information about the error is handled through normal exception paths.

Auditing with CADF

Keystone uses the PyCADF library to emit CADF notifications, these events adhere to the DMTF CADF specification. This standard provides auditing capabilities for compliance with security, operational, and business processes and supports normalized and categorized event data for federation and aggregation.

CADF notifications include additional context data around the resource, the action and the initiator.

CADF notifications may be emitted by changing the notification_format to cadf in the configuration file.

The payload portion of a CADF Notification is a CADF event, which is represented as a JSON dictionary. For example:

{
    "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
    "initiator": {
        "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
        "host": {
            "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
            "address": "127.0.0.1"
        },
        "id": "<initiator_id>"
    },
    "target": {
        "typeURI": "<target_uri>",
        "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
    },
    "observer": {
        "typeURI": "service/security",
        "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
    },
    "eventType": "activity",
    "eventTime": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
    "action": "<action>",
    "outcome": "success",
    "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f",
}

Where the following are defined:

  • <initiator_id>: ID of the user that performed the operation
  • <target_uri>: CADF specific target URI, (i.e.: data/security/project)
  • <action>: The action being performed, typically: <operation>. <resource_type>

Additionally there may be extra keys present depending on the operation being performed, these will be discussed below.

Note, the eventType property of the CADF payload is different from the event_type property of a notifications. The former (eventType) is a CADF keyword which designates the type of event that is being measured, this can be: activity, monitor or control. Whereas the latter (event_type) is described in previous sections as: identity.<resource_type>.<operation>

Supported Events

The following table displays the compatibility between resource types and operations.

resource type supported operations typeURI
group create, update, delete data/security/group
project create, update, delete data/security/project
role create, update, delete data/security/role
domain create, update, delete data/security/domain
user create, update, delete data/security/account/user
trust create, delete data/security/trust
region create, update, delete data/security/region
endpoint create, update, delete data/security/endpoint
service create, update, delete data/security/service
policy create, update, delete data/security/policy
role assignment add, remove data/security/account/user
None authenticate data/security/account/user

Example Notification - Project Create

The following is an example of a notification that is sent when a project is created. This example can be applied for any create, update or delete event that is seen in the table above. The <action> and typeURI fields will be change.

The difference to note is the inclusion of the resource_info field which contains the <resource_id> that is undergoing the operation. Thus creating a common element between the CADF and Basic notification formats.

{
    "event_type": "identity.project.created",
    "message_id": "0156ee79-b35f-4cef-ac37-d4a85f231c69",
    "payload": {
        "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
        "initiator": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "host": {
                "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
                "address": "127.0.0.1"
            },
            "id": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a"
        },
        "target": {
            "typeURI": "data/security/project",
            "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
        },
        "observer": {
            "typeURI": "service/security",
            "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
        },
        "eventType": "activity",
        "eventTime": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
        "action": "created.project",
        "outcome": "success",
        "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f",
        "resource_info": "671da331c47d4e29bb6ea1d270154ec3"
    }
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2013-08-29 19:03:45.960280"
}

Example Notification - Authentication

The following is an example of a notification that is sent when a user authenticates with Keystone.

Note that this notification will be emitted if a user successfully authenticates, and when a user fails to authenticate.

{
    "event_type": "identity.authenticate",
    "message_id": "1371a590-d5fd-448f-b3bb-a14dead6f4cb",
    "payload": {
        "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
        "initiator": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "host": {
                "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
                "address": "127.0.0.1"
            },
            "id": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a"
        },
        "target": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
        },
        "observer": {
            "typeURI": "service/security",
            "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
        },
        "eventType": "activity",
        "eventTime": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
        "action": "authenticate",
        "outcome": "success",
        "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f"
    },
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842"
}

Example Notification - Federated Authentication

The following is an example of a notification that is sent when a user authenticates with Keystone via Federation.

This example is similar to the one seen above, however the initiator portion of the payload contains a new credential section.

{
    "event_type": "identity.authenticate",
    "message_id": "1371a590-d5fd-448f-b3bb-a14dead6f4cb",
    "payload": {
        "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
        "initiator": {
            "credential": {
                "type": "http://docs.oasis-open.org/security/saml/v2.0",
                "token": "671da331c47d4e29bb6ea1d270154ec3",
                "identity_provider": "ACME",
                "user": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a",
                "groups": [
                    "developers"
                ]
            },
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "host": {
                "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
                "address": "127.0.0.1"
            },
            "id": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a"
        },
        "target": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
        },
        "observer": {
            "typeURI": "service/security",
            "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
        },
        "eventType": "activity",
        "eventTime": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
        "action": "authenticate",
        "outcome": "success",
        "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f"
    },
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842"
}

Example Notification - Role Assignment

The following is an example of a notification that is sent when a role is granted or revoked to a project or domain, for a user or group.

It is important to note that this type of notification has many new keys that convey the necessary information. Expect the following in the payload: role, inherited_to_project, project or domain, user or group. With the exception of inherited_to_project, each will represent the unique identifier of the resource type.

{
    "event_type": "identity.created.role_assignment",
    "message_id": "a5901371-d5fd-b3bb-448f-a14dead6f4cb",
    "payload": {
        "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
        "initiator": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "host": {
                "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
                "address": "127.0.0.1"
            },
            "id": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a"
        },
        "target": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
        },
        "observer": {
            "typeURI": "service/security",
            "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
        },
        "eventType": "activity",
        "eventTime": "2014-08-20T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
        "role": "0e6b990380154a2599ce6b6e91548a68",
        "project": "24bdcff1aab8474895dbaac509793de1",
        "inherited_to_projects": false,
        "group": "c1e22dc67cbd469ea0e33bf428fe597a",
        "action": "created.role_assignment",
        "outcome": "success",
        "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f"
    },
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2014-08-20T01:20:47.932842"
}

Recommendations for consumers

One of the most important notifications that Keystone emits is for project deletions (event_type = identity.project.deleted). This event should indicate to the rest of OpenStack that all resources (such as virtual machines) associated with the project should be deleted.

Projects can also have update events (event_type = identity.project.updated), wherein the project has been disabled. Keystone ensures this has an immediate impact on the accessibility of the project’s resources by revoking tokens with authorization on the project, but should not have a direct impact on the projects resources (in other words, virtual machines should not be deleted).