Data plane and control plane¶
When designing an OpenStack cloud, it is important to consider the needs dictated by the Service Level Agreement (SLA). This includes the core services required to maintain availability of running Compute service instances, networks, storage, and additional services running on top of those resources. These services are often referred to as the Data Plane services, and are generally expected to be available all the time.
The remaining services, responsible for create, read, update and delete (CRUD) operations, metering, monitoring, and so on, are often referred to as the Control Plane. The SLA is likely to dictate a lower uptime requirement for these services.
The services comprising an OpenStack cloud have a number of requirements that you need to understand in order to be able to meet SLA terms. For example, in order to provide the Compute service a minimum of storage, message queueing and database services are necessary as well as the networking between them.
Ongoing maintenance operations are made much simpler if there is logical and
physical separation of Data Plane and Control Plane systems. It then becomes
possible to, for example, reboot a controller without affecting customers.
If one service failure affects the operation of an entire server (
neighbor), the separation between Control and Data Planes enables rapid
maintenance with a limited effect on customer operations.
Eliminating single points of failure within each site¶
OpenStack lends itself to deployment in a highly available manner where it is
expected that at least 2 servers be utilized. These can run all the services
involved from the message queuing service, for example
QPID, and an appropriately deployed database service such as
MariaDB. As services in the cloud are scaled out, back-end services will
need to scale too. Monitoring and reporting on server utilization and response
times, as well as load testing your systems, will help determine scale out
The OpenStack services themselves should be deployed across multiple servers that do not represent a single point of failure. Ensuring availability can be achieved by placing these services behind highly available load balancers that have multiple OpenStack servers as members.
There are a small number of OpenStack services which are intended to only run
in one place at a time (for example, the
. In order to prevent these services from becoming a single point of failure,
they can be controlled by clustering software such as
In OpenStack, the infrastructure is integral to providing services and should always be available, especially when operating with SLAs. Ensuring network availability is accomplished by designing the network architecture so that no single point of failure exists. A consideration of the number of switches, routes and redundancies of power should be factored into core infrastructure, as well as the associated bonding of networks to provide diverse routes to your highly available switch infrastructure.
Care must be taken when deciding network functionality. Currently, OpenStack supports both the legacy networking (nova-network) system and the newer, extensible OpenStack Networking (neutron). OpenStack Networking and legacy networking both have their advantages and disadvantages. They are both valid and supported options that fit different network deployment models described in the OpenStack Operations Guide.
When using the Networking service, the OpenStack controller servers or separate Networking hosts handle routing unless the dynamic virtual routers pattern for routing is selected. Running routing directly on the controller servers mixes the Data and Control Planes and can cause complex issues with performance and troubleshooting. It is possible to use third party software and external appliances that help maintain highly available layer three routes. Doing so allows for common application endpoints to control network hardware, or to provide complex multi-tier web applications in a secure manner. It is also possible to completely remove routing from Networking, and instead rely on hardware routing capabilities. In this case, the switching infrastructure must support layer three routing.
Application design must also be factored into the capabilities of the underlying cloud infrastructure. If the compute hosts do not provide a seamless live migration capability, then it must be expected that if a compute host fails, that instance and any data local to that instance will be deleted. However, when providing an expectation to users that instances have a high-level of uptime guaranteed, the infrastructure must be deployed in a way that eliminates any single point of failure if a compute host disappears. This may include utilizing shared file systems on enterprise storage or OpenStack Block storage to provide a level of guarantee to match service features.
If using a storage design that includes shared access to centralized storage, ensure that this is also designed without single points of failure and the SLA for the solution matches or exceeds the expected SLA for the Data Plane.
Eliminating single points of failure in a multi-region design¶
Some services are commonly shared between multiple regions, including the Identity service and the Dashboard. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the databases backing the services are replicated, and that access to multiple workers across each site can be maintained in the event of losing a single region.
Multiple network links should be deployed between sites to provide redundancy for all components. This includes storage replication, which should be isolated to a dedicated network or VLAN with the ability to assign QoS to control the replication traffic or provide priority for this traffic.
If the data store is highly changeable, the network requirements could have a significant effect on the operational cost of maintaining the sites.
If the design incorporates more than one site, the ability to maintain object availability in both sites has significant implications on the Object Storage design and implementation. It also has a significant impact on the WAN network design between the sites.
If applications running in a cloud are not cloud-aware, there should be clear measures and expectations to define what the infrastructure can and cannot support. An example would be shared storage between sites. It is possible, however such a solution is not native to OpenStack and requires a third-party hardware vendor to fulfill such a requirement. Another example can be seen in applications that are able to consume resources in object storage directly.
Connecting more than two sites increases the challenges and adds more complexity to the design considerations. Multi-site implementations require planning to address the additional topology used for internal and external connectivity. Some options include full mesh topology, hub spoke, spine leaf, and 3D Torus.
For more information on high availability in OpenStack, see the OpenStack High Availability Guide.
Site loss and recovery¶
Outages can cause partial or full loss of site functionality. Strategies should be implemented to understand and plan for recovery scenarios.
The deployed applications need to continue to function and, more importantly, you must consider the impact on the performance and reliability of the application if a site is unavailable.
It is important to understand what happens to the replication of objects and data between the sites when a site goes down. If this causes queues to start building up, consider how long these queues can safely exist until an error occurs.
After an outage, ensure that operations of a site are resumed when it comes back online. We recommend that you architect the recovery to avoid race conditions.
Replicating inter-site data¶
Traditionally, replication has been the best method of protecting object store implementations. A variety of replication methods exist in storage architectures, for example synchronous and asynchronous mirroring. Most object stores and back-end storage systems implement methods for replication at the storage subsystem layer. Object stores also tailor replication techniques to fit a cloud’s requirements.
Organizations must find the right balance between data integrity and data availability. Replication strategy may also influence disaster recovery methods.
Replication across different racks, data centers, and geographical regions increases focus on determining and ensuring data locality. The ability to guarantee data is accessed from the nearest or fastest storage can be necessary for applications to perform well.
When running embedded object store methods, ensure that you do not instigate extra data replication as this may cause performance issues.