Hashmap rating module

Hashmap rating module

CloudKitty is shipped with core rating modules.

Hashmap composition

You can see hashmap as a simple tree:

digraph "Hashmap's data structure" {

    label="HashMap module data structure";
    compound=true;

    compute;
    network [label="network.floating_ip"];
    volume;

    subgraph cluster_0 {
        label="services";
        style=dashed;
        {rank=same; compute -> network -> volume [style=invis];}
    }

    compute -> flavor;

    subgraph cluster_1 {
        label="fields:\nAssociate to metadata";
        style=dashed;
        flavor;
    }

    // Mappings
    micro [label="value=m1.micro\ntype=flat\ncost=0.1"];
    tiny [label="value=m1.tiny\ntype=flat\ncost=0.2"];
    small [label="value=m1.small\ntype=flat\ncost=0.4"];

    floating [label="\ntype=flat\ncost=0.5"];

    // Thresholds
    1024 [label="level=1024\ntype=flat\ncost=0.1"];
    10240 [label="level=10240\ntype=flat\ncost=0.2"];

    subgraph cluster_2 {
        label="mappings";
        style=dashed;
        {rank=same; micro -> tiny -> small -> floating [style=invis];}
    }

    subgraph cluster_3 {
        label="thresholds";
        style=dashed;
        {rank=same; 1024 -> 10240 [style=invis];}
    }

    flavor -> micro;
    flavor -> tiny;
    flavor -> small;
    network -> floating;
    volume -> 1024;
    volume -> 10240;
}

HashMap is composed of different resources and groups.

Group

A group is a way to group calculations of mappings. For example you might want to apply a set of rules to rate instance uptime and another set to block storage volume. You don’t want the two to be linked so you’ll create one group for each calculation.

See mappings for information about how groups impact rating.

Service

A service is a way to map a rule to the type of data collected. One hashmap service must be created for each metric type you want to rate. If the metric has an alt_name, the name of the hashmap service must match the alt_name. If no alt_name is provided, use the name of the metric.

Example with the default configuration:

metrics:
  cpu:
    unit: instance
    alt_name: instance
  # [...]

  image.size:
    unit: MiB
  # [...]

In this case, cpu has an alt_name and image.size hasn’t. Thus, the hashmap service for the cpu metric must be called instance and the service for images must be called image.size.

Field

A field is referring to a metadata field of a resource. For example on an instance object (in the instance service), you can use the flavor to define specific rules.

Each groupby and metadata attribute specified in the configuration can be used for a field:

metrics:
  cpu:
    unit: instance
    alt_name: instance
    groupby:
      - id
      - project_id
    metadata:
      - flavor_id
    # [...]

  volume.size:
    unit: GiB
    groupby:
      - id
      - project_id
    metadata:
      - volume_type
    # [...]

With the configuration above, the instance service could have the following fields:

  • id

  • project_id

  • flavor_id

The volume.size service could have the following fields:

  • id

  • project_id

  • volume_type

In this case, flavor_id and volume_type can be used to apply a different pricing based on the flavor of an instance or the type of a volume.

Mapping

A mapping is the final object, it’s what triggers calculation, for example a specific value of flavor on an instance.

There are two kinds of mappings: field and service mappings.

Field mappings

A field mapping is used to match the attributes/metadata of a resource. For example, if you have three volume types on which you want to apply distinct rating rules, you must proceed in the following way:

  1. Create a hashmap service matching the name or alt_name of the volume metric (volume.size with default gnocchi).

  2. In that service, create a field with the name of the volume type metadata (volume_type with default gnocchi).

  3. In that field, create one mapping per possible value of the volume_type metadata. Example:

    • SSD_gold: 0.03

    • SSD_silver: 0.02

    • HDD_bronze: 0.01

Each element of the volume metric will now be based on its volume_type metadata. A 10GiB SSD_gold volume will be rated 0.3 per collect period, a 1GiB HDD_bronze volume will be rated 0.01, a 0.5GiB SSD_silver will be 0.01…

Service mappings

A service mapping is not associated with a field, but directly with a service. If a mapping is created directly on the volume.size service, each volume will be rated based on this mapping, with no metadata-based distinction.

Flat and Rate

A mapping can have two types: flat or rate. A flat mapping is simply added to the total for a given item, whereas a rate multiplies the total. See the examples below use cases.

Note

If several flat mappings of the same group match, only the most expensive one is applied.

Scope

It is possible to tie a mapping to a specific scope/tenant_id.

Threshold

A threshold entry is used to apply rating rules only after a specific level. Apart from that, it works the same way as a mapping.

As for mappings, a threshold can be tied to a specific scope/project.

Examples

Instance uptime

Apply rating rules to rate instances based on their flavor_id and uptime:

Create an instance_uptime_flavor_id group:

$ cloudkitty hashmap group create instance_uptime_flavor_id
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Name                      | Group ID                             |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| instance_uptime_flavor_id | 9a2ff37d-be86-4642-8b7d-567bace61f06 |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+

$ cloudkitty hashmap group list
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Name                      | Group ID                             |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| instance_uptime_flavor_id | 9a2ff37d-be86-4642-8b7d-567bace61f06 |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+

Create the service matching rule:

$ cloudkitty hashmap service create instance
+----------+--------------------------------------+
| Name     | Service ID                           |
+----------+--------------------------------------+
| instance | b19d801d-e7d4-46f9-970b-3e6d60fc07b5 |
+----------+--------------------------------------+

Create a field matching rule:

$ cloudkitty hashmap field create b19d801d-e7d4-46f9-970b-3e6d60fc07b5 flavor_id
+-----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Name      | Field ID                             | Service ID                           |
+-----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| flavor_id | 18aa50b6-6da8-4c47-8a1f-43236b971625 | b19d801d-e7d4-46f9-970b-3e6d60fc07b5 |
+-----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+

Create a mapping in the instance_uptime_flavor group that will map m1.tiny instance to a cost of 0.01:

$ openstack flavor show m1.tiny
+----------------------------+----------------------------------------+
| Field                      | Value                                  |
+----------------------------+----------------------------------------+
| OS-FLV-DISABLED:disabled   | False                                  |
| OS-FLV-EXT-DATA:ephemeral  | 0                                      |
| access_project_ids         | None                                   |
| disk                       | 20                                     |
| id                         | 93195dd4-bbf3-4b13-929d-8293ae72e056   |
| name                       | m1.tiny                                |
| os-flavor-access:is_public | True                                   |
| properties                 | baremetal='false', flavor-type='small' |
| ram                        | 512                                    |
| rxtx_factor                | 1.0                                    |
| swap                       |                                        |
| vcpus                      | 1                                      |
+----------------------------+----------------------------------------+

$ cloudkitty hashmap mapping create 0.01 \
 --field-id 18aa50b6-6da8-4c47-8a1f-43236b971625 \
 --value 93195dd4-bbf3-4b13-929d-8293ae72e056 \
 -g 9a2ff37d-be86-4642-8b7d-567bace61f06 \
 -t flat
+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+------+--------------------------------------+------------+--------------------------------------+------------+
| Mapping ID                           | Value                                | Cost       | Type | Field ID                             | Service ID | Group ID                             | Project ID |
+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+------+--------------------------------------+------------+--------------------------------------+------------+
| 9c2418dc-99d3-44b6-8fdf-e9fa02f3ceb5 | 93195dd4-bbf3-4b13-929d-8293ae72e056 | 0.01000000 | flat | 18aa50b6-6da8-4c47-8a1f-43236b971625 | None       | 9a2ff37d-be86-4642-8b7d-567bace61f06 | None       |
+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+------+--------------------------------------+------------+--------------------------------------+------------+

In this example every machine in any project with the flavor m1.tiny will be rated 0.01 per collection period.

Volume per GiB with discount

Now let’s do some threshold based rating.

Create a volume_thresholds group:

$ cloudkitty hashmap group create volume_thresholds
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Name              | Group ID                             |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| volume_thresholds | 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

$ cloudkitty hashmap group list
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Name              | Group ID                             |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| volume_thresholds | 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

Create the service matching rule:

$ cloudkitty hashmap service create volume.size
+-------------+--------------------------------------+
| Name        | Service ID                           |
+-------------+--------------------------------------+
| volume.size | 74ad7e4e-9cae-45a8-884b-368a92803afe |
+-------------+--------------------------------------+

Now let’s setup the price per gigabyte:

$ cloudkitty hashmap mapping create 0.001 \
 -s 74ad7e4e-9cae-45a8-884b-368a92803afe \
 -t flat -g 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493
+--------------------------------------+-------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+
| Mapping ID                           | Value | Cost       | Type | Field ID | Service ID                           | Group ID                             | Project ID |
+--------------------------------------+-------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+
| 09e36b13-ce89-4bd0-bbf1-1b80577031e8 | None  | 0.00100000 | flat | None     | 74ad7e4e-9cae-45a8-884b-368a92803afe | 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493 | None       |
+--------------------------------------+-------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+

We have the basic price per gigabyte be we now want to apply a discount on huge data volumes. Create the thresholds in the group volume_thresholds that will map different volume quantities to costs:

Here we set a threshold when going past 50GiB, and apply a 2% discount (0.98):

$ cloudkitty hashmap threshold create 50 0.98 \
 -s 74ad7e4e-9cae-45a8-884b-368a92803afe \
 -t rate -g 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493
+--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+
| Threshold ID                         | Level       | Cost       | Type | Field ID | Service ID                           | Group ID                             | Project ID |
+--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+
| ae02175d-beff-4b01-bb3a-00907b05fe66 | 50.00000000 | 0.98000000 | rate | None     | 74ad7e4e-9cae-45a8-884b-368a92803afe | 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493 | None       |
+--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+

Here we set the same threshold for project 2d5b39657dc542d4b2a14b685335304e but with a 3% discount (0.97):

$ cloudkitty hashmap threshold create 50 0.97 \
 -s 74ad7e4e-9cae-45a8-884b-368a92803afe \
 -t rate -g 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493 \
 -p 2d5b39657dc542d4b2a14b685335304e
+--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| Threshold ID                         | Level       | Cost       | Type | Field ID | Service ID                           | Group ID                             | Project ID                       |
+--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| b20504bf-da34-434c-909d-46c2168c6166 | 50.00000000 | 0.97000000 | rate | None     | 74ad7e4e-9cae-45a8-884b-368a92803afe | 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493 | 2d5b39657dc542d4b2a14b685335304e |
+--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+----------------------------------+

Here we set a threshold when going past 200GiB, and apply a 5% discount (0.95):

$ cloudkitty hashmap threshold create 200 0.95 \
 -s 74ad7e4e-9cae-45a8-884b-368a92803afe \
 -t rate -g 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493
+--------------------------------------+--------------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+
| Threshold ID                         | Level        | Cost       | Type | Field ID | Service ID                           | Group ID                             | Project ID |
+--------------------------------------+--------------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+
| ed9fd297-37d4-4d9c-8f65-9919d554617b | 200.00000000 | 0.95000000 | rate | None     | 74ad7e4e-9cae-45a8-884b-368a92803afe | 9736bbc0-8888-4700-96fc-58db5fded493 | None       |
+--------------------------------------+--------------+------------+------+----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+------------+

In this example every volume is rated 0.001 per GiB but if the size goes past 50GiB you’ll get a 2% discount, if you even go further you’ll get 5% discount (only one level apply at a time).

For project 2d5b39657dc542d4b2a14b685335304e only, you’ll get a 3% discount instead of 2% when the size goes past 50GiB and the same %5 discount it goes further.

20GiB

0.02 per collection period.

50GiB

0.049 per collection period (0.0485 for project 2d5b39657dc542d4b2a14b685335304e).

80GiB

0.0784 per collection period (0.0776 for project 2d5b39657dc542d4b2a14b685335304e).

250GiB

0.2375 per collection period.

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