Federated Identity

Keystone’s one-stop-shop for all federated identity documentation.

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Configuring Keystone for Federation

Definitions

  • Service Provider (SP): provides a service to an end-user.
  • Identity Provider (IdP): service that stores information about users and groups.
  • SAML assertion: contains information about a user as provided by an IdP.

Keystone as a Service Provider (SP)

Note

This feature is considered stable and supported as of the Juno release.

Prerequisites

This approach to federation supports keystone as a Service Provider, consuming identity properties issued by an external Identity Provider, such as SAML assertions or OpenID Connect claims, or by using Keystone as an Identity Provider (IdP).

Federated users are not mirrored in the keystone identity backend (for example, using the SQL driver). The external Identity Provider is responsible for authenticating users, and communicates the result of authentication to keystone using identity properties. Keystone maps these values to keystone user groups and assignments created in keystone.

The following configuration steps were performed on a machine running Ubuntu 14.04 and Apache 2.4.7.

To enable federation, you’ll need to:

  1. Run keystone under Apache, rather than using uwsgi command.
  2. Configure Apache to use a federation capable authentication method.
  3. Configure Federation in Keystone.
Configure Apache to use a federation capable authentication method

There is currently support for two major federation protocols:

Configure keystone and Horizon for Single Sign-On

Configure Federation in Keystone

Now that the Identity Provider and keystone are communicating we can start to configure federation.

  1. Configure authentication drivers in keystone.conf
  2. Create keystone groups and assign roles
  3. Add Identity Provider(s), Mapping(s), and Protocol(s)
Configure authentication drivers in keystone.conf

Add the authentication methods to the [auth] section in keystone.conf. Names should be equal to protocol names added via Identity API v3. Here we use examples mapped and openid.

[auth]
methods = external,password,token,mapped,openid
Create keystone groups and assign roles

As mentioned earlier, no new users will be added to the Identity backend, but the Identity Service requires group-based role assignments to authorize federated users. The federation mapping function will map the user into local Identity Service groups objects, and hence to local role assignments.

Thus, it is required to create the necessary Identity Service groups that correspond to the Identity Provider’s groups; additionally, these groups should be assigned roles on one or more projects or domains.

You may be interested in more information on group management and role assignments, both of which are exposed to the CLI via python-openstackclient.

For example, create a new domain and project like this:

$ openstack domain create federated_domain
$ openstack project create federated_project --domain federated_domain

And a new group like this:

$ openstack group create federated_users

Add the group to the domain and project:

$ openstack role add --group federated_users --domain federated_domain Member
$ openstack role add --group federated_users --project federated_project Member

We’ll later add a mapping that makes all federated users a part of this group and therefore members of the new domain.

Add Identity Provider(s), Mapping(s), and Protocol(s)

To utilize federation the following must be created in the Identity Service:

Read more about federation in keystone.

Identity Provider

Create an Identity Provider object in keystone, which represents the Identity Provider we will use to authenticate end users:

$ openstack identity provider create --remote-id https://myidp.example.com/v3/OS-FEDERATION/saml2/idp myidp

The value for the remote-id option is the unique identifier provided by the IdP. For a SAML IdP it can found as the EntityDescriptor entityID in the IdP’s provided metadata. If the IdP is a keystone IdP, it is the value set in that keystone’s [saml]/idp_entity_id option. For an OpenID Connect IdP, it is the IdP’s Issuer Identifier. It will usually appear as a URI but there is no requirement for it to resolve to anything and may be arbitrarily decided by the administrator of the IdP. The local name, here called ‘myidp’, is decided by you and will be used by the mapping and protocol, and later for authentication.

A keystone identity provider may have multiple remote_ids specified, this allows the same keystone identity provider resource to be used with multiple external identity providers. For example, an identity provider resource university-idp, may have the following remote_ids: ['university-x', 'university-y', 'university-z']. This removes the need to configure N identity providers in keystone.

Note

Remote IDs are globally unique. Two identity providers cannot be associated with the same remote ID. Once authenticated with the external identity provider, keystone will determine which identity provider and mapping to use based on the protocol and the value returned from the remote_id_attribute key.

For example, if our identity provider is google, the mapping used is google_mapping and the protocol is openid. The identity provider’s remote IDs would be: [https://accounts.google.com]. The remote_id_attribute value may be set to HTTP_OIDC_ISS, since this value will always be https://accounts.google.com.

The motivation for this approach is that there will always be some data sent by the identity provider (in the assertion or claim) that uniquely identifies the identity provider. This removes the requirement for horizon to list all the identity providers that are trusted by keystone.

Read more about identity providers.

Mapping

A mapping is a list of rules. The only Identity API objects that will support mapping are groups and users.

Mapping adds a set of rules to map federation protocol attributes to Identity API objects. There are many different ways to setup as well as combine these rules. More information on rules can be found on the Mapping Combinations page.

An Identity Provider has exactly one mapping specified per protocol. Mapping objects can be used multiple times by different combinations of Identity Provider and Protocol.

As a simple example, if keystone is your IdP, you can map a few known remote users to the group you already created:

$ cat > rules.json <<EOF
[
    {
        "local": [
            {
                "user": {
                    "name": "{0}"
                },
                "group": {
                    "domain": {
                        "name": "Default"
                    },
                    "name": "federated_users"
                }
            }
        ],
        "remote": [
            {
                "type": "openstack_user",
                "any_one_of": [
                    "demo",
                    "alt_demo"
                ]
            }
        ]
    }
]
EOF
$ openstack mapping create --rules rules.json myidp_mapping

As another example, if Shibboleth is your IdP, the remote section should use REMOTE_USER as the remote type:

$ cat > rules.json <<EOF
[
    {
        "local": [
            {
                "user": {
                    "name": "{0}"
                },
                "group": {
                    "domain": {
                        "name": "Default"
                    },
                    "name": "federated_users"
                }
            }
        ],
        "remote": [
            {
                "type": "REMOTE_USER"
            }
        ]
    }
]
EOF
$ openstack mapping create --rules rules.json myidp_mapping

Read more about mapping.

Protocol

A protocol contains information that dictates which Mapping rules to use for an incoming request made by an IdP. An IdP may have multiple supported protocols.

You can create a protocol like this:

$ openstack federation protocol create mapped --mapping myidp_mapping --identity-provider myidp

The name you give the protocol is not arbitrary. It must match the method name you gave in the [auth]/methods config option. When authenticating it will be referred to as the protocol_id.

Read more about federation protocols

Performing federated authentication

Note

Authentication with keystone-to-keystone federation does not follow these steps. See Testing it all out to authenticate with keystone-to-keystone.

  1. Authenticate externally and generate an unscoped token in keystone
  2. Determine accessible resources
  3. Get a scoped token
Get an unscoped token

Unlike other authentication methods in the Identity Service, the user does not issue an HTTP POST request with authentication data in the request body. To start federated authentication a user must access the dedicated URL with Identity Provider’s and Protocol’s identifiers stored within a protected URL. The URL has a format of: /v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/{idp_id}/protocols/{protocol_id}/auth.

In this instance we follow a standard SAML2 authentication procedure, that is, the user will be redirected to the Identity Provider’s authentication webpage and be prompted for credentials. After successfully authenticating the user will be redirected to the Service Provider’s endpoint. If using a web browser, a token will be returned in JSON format, with the ID in the X-Subject-Token header.

In the returned unscoped token, a list of Identity Service groups the user belongs to will be included.

Read more about getting an unscoped token.

Example cURL

Note that the request does not include a body. The following url would be considered protected by mod_shib and Apache, as such a request made to the URL would be redirected to the Identity Provider, to start the SAML authentication procedure.

$ curl -X GET -D - http://localhost:5000/v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/{idp_id}/protocols/{protocol_id}/auth
Determine accessible resources

By using the previously returned token, the user can issue requests to the list projects and domains that are accessible.

  • List projects a federated user can access: GET /OS-FEDERATION/projects
  • List domains a federated user can access: GET /OS-FEDERATION/domains

Read more about listing resources.

Example
$ export OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3
$ export OS_TOKEN=<unscoped token>
$ export OS_URL=http://localhost:5000/v3
$ openstack federation project list

or

$ export OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3
$ export OS_TOKEN=<unscoped token>
$ export OS_URL=http://localhost:5000/v3
$ openstack federation domain list
Get a scoped token

A federated user may request a scoped token, by using the unscoped token. A project or domain may be specified by either id or name. An id is sufficient to uniquely identify a project or domain.

Read more about getting a scoped token.

Example
$ export OS_AUTH_TYPE=token
$ export OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3
$ export OS_TOKEN=<unscoped token>
$ export OS_AUTH_URL=http://localhost:5000/v3
$ export OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME=federated_domain
$ export OS_PROJECT_NAME=federated_project
$ openstack token issue

Keystone as an Identity Provider (IdP)

Note

This feature is experimental and unsupported in Juno (with several issues that will not be backported). These issues have been fixed and this feature is considered stable and supported as of the Kilo release.

Note

This feature requires installation of the xmlsec1 tool via your distribution packaging system (for instance apt or yum)

Example for apt:

$ apt-get install xmlsec1

Configuration Options

There are certain settings in keystone.conf that must be setup, prior to attempting to federate multiple keystone deployments.

Within keystone.conf, assign values to the [saml] related fields, for example:

[saml]
idp_entity_id=https://myidp.example.com/v3/OS-FEDERATION/saml2/idp
idp_sso_endpoint=https://myidp.example.com/v3/OS-FEDERATION/saml2/sso

idp_entity_id is the unique identifier for the Identity Provider. It usually takes the form of a URI but it does not have to resolve to anything. idp_sso_endpoint is required to generate valid metadata but its value is not important, though it may be in the future.

Note the certfile, keyfile, and idp_metadata_path settings and adjust them if necessary:

certfile=/etc/keystone/ssl/certs/signing_cert.pem
keyfile=/etc/keystone/ssl/private/signing_key.pem
idp_metadata_path=/etc/keystone/saml2_idp_metadata.xml

Though not necessary, the follow Organization configuration options should also be setup. It is recommended that these values be URL safe.

idp_organization_name=example_company
idp_organization_display_name=Example Corp.
idp_organization_url=example.com

As with the Organization options, the Contact options, are not necessary, but it’s advisable to set these values too.

idp_contact_company=example_company
idp_contact_name=John
idp_contact_surname=Smith
idp_contact_email=jsmith@example.com
idp_contact_telephone=555-555-5555
idp_contact_type=technical

Generate Metadata

In order to create a trust between the IdP and SP, metadata must be exchanged.

First, if you haven’t already generated a PKI key pair, you need to do so and copy those files the locations designated by certfile and keyfile options that were assigned in the previous section. Ensure that your apache vhost has SSL enabled and is using that keypair by adding the following to the vhost:

SSLEngine on
SSLCertificateFile /etc/keystone/ssl/certs/signing_cert.pem
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/keystone/ssl/private/signing_key.pem

To create metadata for your keystone IdP, run the keystone-manage command and redirect the output to a file. For example:

$ keystone-manage saml_idp_metadata > /etc/keystone/saml2_idp_metadata.xml

Note

The file location should match the value of the configuration option idp_metadata_path that was assigned in the previous section.

Finally, restart apache.

Create a Service Provider (SP)

In this example we are creating a new Service Provider with an ID of mysp, a sp_url of http://mysp.example.com/Shibboleth.sso/SAML2/ECP and a auth_url of http://mysp.example.com:5000/v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/mapped/auth . The sp_url will be used when creating a SAML assertion for mysp and signed by the current keystone IdP. The auth_url is used to retrieve the token for mysp once the SAML assertion is sent. The auth_url has the format described in Get an unscoped token.

$ openstack service provider create --service-provider-url 'http://mysp.example.com/Shibboleth.sso/SAML2/ECP' --auth-url http://mysp.example.com:5000/v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/mapped/auth mysp

Testing it all out

Use keystoneauth to create a password session with the IdP, then use the session to authenticate with the SP, and get a scoped token from the SP.

Note

ECP stands for Enhanced Client or Proxy, an extension from the SAML2 protocol used in non-browser interfaces, like in the following example.

import os

from keystoneauth1 import session
from keystoneauth1.identity import v3
from keystoneauth1.identity.v3 import k2k

auth = v3.Password(auth_url=os.environ.get('OS_AUTH_URL'),
                   username=os.environ.get('OS_USERNAME'),
                   password=os.environ.get('OS_PASSWORD'),
                   user_domain_name=os.environ.get('OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME'),
                   project_name=os.environ.get('OS_PROJECT_NAME'),
                   project_domain_name=os.environ.get('OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME'))
password_session = session.Session(auth=auth)
k2ksession = k2k.Keystone2Keystone(password_session.auth, 'mysp',
                                   domain_name='federated_domain')
auth_ref = k2ksession.get_auth_ref(password_session)
scoped_token_id = auth_ref.auth_token
print('Scoped token id: %s' % scoped_token_id)
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Mapping Combinations

Description

During the authentication process an identity provider (IdP) will present keystone with a set of user attributes about the user that is authenticating. For example, in the SAML2 flow this comes to keystone in the form of a SAML document.

The attributes are typically processed by third-party software and are presented to keystone as environment variables. The original document from the IdP is generally not available to keystone. This is how the Shibboleth and Mellon implementations work.

The mapping format described in this document maps these environment variables to a local keystone user. The mapping may also define group membership for that user and projects the user can access.

An IdP has exactly one mapping specified per protocol. Mappings themselves can be used multiple times by different combinations of IdP and protocol.

Definitions

A mapping looks as follows:

{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    <user>
                    [<group>]
                    [<project>]
                }
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    <match>
                    [<condition>]
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}
  • mapping: a JSON object containing a list of rules.
  • rules: a property in the mapping that contains the list of rules.
  • rule: a JSON object containing local and remote properties to define the rule. There is no explicit rule property.
  • local: a JSON object containing information on what local attributes will be mapped. The mapping engine processes this using the context (defined below) and the result is a representation of the user from keystone’s perspective.
    • <user>: the local user that will be mapped to the federated user.
    • <group>: (optional) the local groups the federated user will be placed in.
    • <projects>: (optional) the local projects mapped to the federated user.
  • remote: a JSON object containing information on what remote attributes will be mapped.
    • <match>: a JSON object that tells the mapping engine what federated attribute to make available for substitution in the local object. There can be one or more of these objects in the remote list.
    • <condition>: a JSON object containing conditions that allow a rule. There can be zero or more of these objects in the remote list.
  • direct mapping: the mapping engine keeps track of each match and makes them available to the local rule for substitution.
  • assertion: data provided to keystone by the IdP to assert facts (name, groups, etc) about the authenticating user. This is an XML document when using the SAML2 protocol.
  • mapping context: the data, represented as key-value pairs, that is used by the mapping engine to turn the local object into a representation of the user from keystone’s perspective. The mapping context contains the environment of the keystone process and any direct mapping values calculated when processing the remote list.

How Mappings Are Processed

A mapping is selected by IdP and protocol. Then keystone takes the mapping and processes each rule sequentially stopping after the first matched rule. A rule is matched when all of its conditions are met.

First keystone evaluates each condition from the rule’s remote property to see if the rule is a match. If it is a match, keystone saves the data captured by each of the matches from the rule’s remote property in an ordered list. We call these matches direct mappings since they can be used in the next step.

After the rule is found using the rule’s conditions and a list of direct mappings is stored, keystone begins processing the rule’s local property. Each object in the local property is collapsed into a single JSON object. For example:

{
    "local": [
        {
            "user": {...}
        },
        {
            "projects": [...]
        },
    ]
}

becomes:

{
    "local": {
        "user": {...}
        "projects": [...]
    },
}

when the same property exists in the local multiple times the first occurrence wins:

{
    "local": [
        {
            "user": {#first#}
        },
        {
            "projects": [...]
        },
        {
            "user": {#second#}
        },
    ]
}

becomes:

{
    "local": {
        "user": {#first#}
        "projects": [...]
    },
}

We take this JSON object and then recursively process it in order to apply the direct mappings. This is simply looking for the pattern {#} and substituting it with values from the direct mappings list. The index of the direct mapping starts at zero.

Mapping Rules

Mapping Engine

The mapping engine can be tested before creating a federated setup. It can be tested with the keystone-manage mapping_engine command:

$ keystone-manage mapping_engine --rules <file> --input <file>

Note

Although the rules file is formatted as JSON, the input file of assertion data is formatted as individual lines of key: value pairs, see keystone-manage mapping_engine –help for details.

Mapping Conditions

Mappings support 5 different types of conditions:

empty: The rule is matched to all claims containing the remote attribute type. This condition does not need to be specified.

any_one_of: The rule is matched only if any of the specified strings appear in the remote attribute type. Condition result is boolean, not the argument that is passed as input.

not_any_of: The rule is not matched if any of the specified strings appear in the remote attribute type. Condition result is boolean, not the argument that is passed as input.

blacklist: The rule allows all except a specified set of groups. Condition result is the argument(s) passed as input minus what was matched in the blacklist.

whitelist: The rules allows a specified set of groups. Condition result is the argument(s) passed as input and is/are also present in the whitelist.

Note

empty, blacklist and whitelist are the only conditions that can be used in direct mapping ({0}, {1}, etc.)

Multiple conditions can be combined to create a single rule.

Mappings Examples

The following are all examples of mapping rule types.

empty condition
{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "user": {
                        "name": "{0} {1}",
                        "email": "{2}"
                    },
                    "group": {
                        "name": "{3}",
                        "domain": {
                            "id": "0cd5e9"
                        }
                    }
                }
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "FirstName"
                },
                {
                    "type": "LastName"
                },
                {
                    "type": "Email"
                },
                {
                    "type": "OIDC_GROUPS"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Note

The numbers in braces {} are indices, they map in order. For example:

- Mapping to user with the name matching the value in remote attribute FirstName
- Mapping to user with the name matching the value in remote attribute LastName
- Mapping to user with the email matching value in remote attribute Email
- Mapping to a group(s) with the name matching the value(s) in remote attribute OIDC_GROUPS

Groups can have multiple values. Each value must be separated by a ; Example: OIDC_GROUPS=developers;testers

other conditions

In <other_condition> shown below, please supply one of the following: any_one_of, or not_any_of.

{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "user": {
                        "name": "{0}"
                    },
                    "group": {
                        "id": "0cd5e9"
                    }
                }
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "UserName"
                },
                {
                    "type": "HTTP_OIDC_GROUPIDS",
                    "<other_condition>": [
                        "HTTP_OIDC_EMAIL"
                    ]
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

In <other_condition> shown below, please supply one of the following: blacklist, or whitelist.

{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "user": {
                        "name": "{0}"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "groups": "{1}",
                    "domain": {
                        "id": "0cd5e9"
                    }
                }
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "UserName"
                },
                {
                    "type": "HTTP_OIDC_GROUPIDS",
                    "<other_condition>": [
                        "me@example.com"
                    ]
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Note

If the user id and name are not specified in the mapping, the server tries to directly map REMOTE_USER environment variable. If this variable is also unavailable the server returns an HTTP 401 Unauthorized error.

Group ids and names can be provided in the local section:

{
    "local": [
        {
            "group": {
                "id":"0cd5e9"
            }
        }
    ]
}
{
    "local": [
        {
            "group": {
                "name": "developer_group",
                "domain": {
                    "id": "abc1234"
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}
{
    "local": [
        {
            "group": {
                "name": "developer_group",
                "domain": {
                    "name": "private_cloud"
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}

Output

If a mapping is valid you will receive the following output:

{
    "group_ids": "[<group-ids>]",
    "user":
        {
            "domain":
                {
                    "id": "Federated" or "<local-domain-id>"
                },
            "type": "ephemeral" or "local",
            "name": "<local-user-name>",
            "id": "<local-user-id>"
        },
    "group_names":
        [
            {
                "domain":
                    {
                        "name": "<domain-name>"
                    },
                "name":
                    {
                        "name": "[<groups-names>]"
                    }
            }
            {
                "domain":
                    {
                        "name": "<domain-name>"
                    },
                "name":
                    {
                        "name": "[<groups-names>]"
                    }
            }
        ]
}

The type parameter specifies the type of user being mapped. The 2 possible user types are local and ephemeral.``local`` is displayed if the user has a domain specified. The user is treated as existing in the backend, hence the server will fetch user details (id, name, roles, groups).``ephemeral`` is displayed for a user that does not exist in the backend.

The id parameter in the service domain specifies the domain a user belongs to. Federated will be displayed if no domain is specified in the local rule. User is deemed ephemeral and becomes a member of service domain named Federated. If the domain is specified the local domain’s id will be displayed. If the mapped user is local, mapping engine will discard further group assigning and return set of roles configured for the user.

Note

Domain Federated is a service domain - it cannot be listed, displayed, added or deleted. There is no need to perform any operation on it prior to federation configuration.

Regular Expressions

Regular expressions can be used in a mapping by specifying the regex key, and setting it to true.

{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "user": {
                        "name": "{0}"
                    },
                    "group": {
                        "id": "0cd5e9"
                    }
                },
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "UserName"
                },
                {
                    "type": "HTTP_OIDC_GROUPIDS",
                    "any_one_of": [
                        ".*@yeah.com$"
                    ]
                    "regex": true
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

This allows any user with a claim containing a key with any value in HTTP_OIDC_GROUPIDS to be mapped to group with id 0cd5e9.

Condition Combinations

Combinations of mappings conditions can also be done.

empty, any_one_of, and not_any_of can all be used in the same rule, but cannot be repeated within the same condition. any_one_of and not_any_of are mutually exclusive within a condition’s scope. So are whitelist and blacklist.

{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "user": {
                        "name": "{0}"
                    },
                    "group": {
                        "id": "0cd5e9"
                    }
                },
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "UserName"
                },
                {
                    "type": "cn=IBM_Canada_Lab",
                    "not_any_of": [
                        ".*@naww.com$"
                    ],
                    "regex": true
                },
                {
                    "type": "cn=IBM_USA_Lab",
                    "any_one_of": [
                        ".*@yeah.com$"
                    ]
                    "regex": true
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

As before group names and users can also be provided in the local section.

This allows any user with the following claim information to be mapped to group with id 0cd5e9.

{"UserName":"<any_name>@yeah.com"}
{"cn=IBM_USA_Lab":"<any_name>@yeah.com"}
{"cn=IBM_Canada_Lab":"<any_name>@yeah.com"}

The following claims will be mapped:

  • any claim containing the key UserName.
  • any claim containing key cn=IBM_Canada_Lab that doesn’t have the value <any_name>@naww.com.
  • any claim containing key cn=IBM_USA_Lab that has value <any_name>@yeah.com.

Multiple Rules

Multiple rules can also be utilized in a mapping.

{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "user": {
                        "name": "{0}"
                    },
                    "group": {
                        "name": "non-contractors",
                        "domain": {
                            "id": "abc1234"
                        }
                    }
                }
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "UserName"
                },
                {
                    "type": "orgPersonType",
                    "not_any_of": [
                        "Contractor",
                        "SubContractor"
                    ]
                }
            ]
        },
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "user": {
                        "name": "{0}"
                    },
                    "group": {
                        "name": "contractors",
                        "domain": {
                            "id": "abc1234"
                        }
                    }
                }
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "UserName"
                },
                {
                    "type": "orgPersonType",
                    "any_one_of": [
                        "Contractor",
                        "SubContractor"
                    ]
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

The above assigns groups membership basing on orgPersonType values:

  • neither Contractor nor SubContractor will belong to the non-contractors group.
  • either Contractor or ``SubContractor will belong to the contractors group.

Rules are additive, so permissions will only be granted for the rules that succeed. All the remote conditions of a rule must be valid.

When using multiple rules you can specify more than one effective user identification, but only the first match will be considered and the others ignored ordered from top to bottom.

Since rules are additive one can specify one user identification and this will also work. The best practice for multiple rules is to create a rule for just user and another rule for just groups. Below is rules example repeated but with global username mapping.

{
    "rules": [{
        "local": [{
            "user": {
                "id": "{0}"
            }
        }],
        "remote": [{
            "type": "UserType"
        }]
    },
    {
        "local": [{
            "group": {
                "name": "non-contractors",
                "domain": {
                    "id": "abc1234"
                }
            }
        }],
        "remote": [{
            "type": "orgPersonType",
            "not_any_of": [
                "Contractor",
                "SubContractor"
            ]
        }]
    },
    {
        "local": [{
            "group": {
                "name": "contractors",
                "domain": {
                    "id": "abc1234"
                }
            }
        }],
        "remote": [{
            "type": "orgPersonType",
            "any_one_of": [
                "Contractor",
                "SubContractor"
            ]
        }]
    }]
 }

Auto-Provisioning

The mapping engine has the ability to aid in the auto-provisioning of resources when a federated user authenticates for the first time. This can be achieved using a specific mapping syntax that the mapping engine can parse and ultimately make decisions on.

For example, consider the following mapping:

{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "user": {
                        "name": "{0}"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "projects": [
                        {
                            "name": "Production",
                            "roles": [
                                {
                                    "name": "observer"
                                }
                            ]
                        },
                        {
                            "name": "Staging",
                            "roles": [
                                {
                                    "name": "member"
                                }
                            ]
                        },
                        {
                            "name": "Project for {0}",
                            "roles": [
                                {
                                    "name": "admin"
                                }
                            ]
                        }
                    ]
                }
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "UserName"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

The semantics of the remote section have not changed. The difference between this mapping and the other examples is the addition of a projects section within the local rules. The projects list supplies a list of projects that the federated user will be given access to. The projects will be automatically created if they don’t exist when the user authenticated and the mapping engine has applied values from the assertion and mapped them into the local rules.

In the above example, an authenticated federated user will be granted the observer role on the Production project, member role on the Staging project, and they will have admin role on the Project for jsmith.

It is important to note the following constraints apply when auto-provisioning:

  • Projects are the only resource that will be created dynamically.
  • Projects will be created within the domain associated with the Identity Provider.
  • The projects section of the mapping must also contain a roles section.
    • Roles within the project must already exist in the deployment or domain.
  • Assignments are actually created for the user which is unlike the ephemeral group memberships.

Since the creation of roles typically requires policy changes across other services in the deployment, it is expected that roles are created ahead of time. Federated authentication should also be considered idempotent if the attributes from the SAML assertion have not changed. In the example from above, if the user’s name is still jsmith, then no new projects will be created as a result of authentication.

Mappings can be created that mix groups and projects within the local section. The mapping shown in the example above does not contain a groups section in the local rules. This will result in the federated user having direct role assignments on the projects in the projects list. The following example contains local rules comprised of both projects and groups, which allow for direct role assignments and group memberships.

{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "user": {
                        "name": "{0}"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "projects": [
                        {
                            "name": "Marketing",
                            "roles": [
                                {
                                    "name": "member"
                                }
                            ]
                        },
                        {
                            "name": "Development project for {0}",
                            "roles": [
                                {
                                    "name": "admin"
                                }
                            ]
                        }
                    ]
                },
                {
                    "group": {
                        "name": "Finance",
                        "domain": {
                            "id": "6fe767"
                        }
                    }
                }
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "UserName"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

In the above example, a federated user will receive direct role assignments on the Marketing project, as well as a dedicated project specific to the federated user’s name. In addition to that, they will also be placed in the Finance group and receive all role assignments that group has on projects and domains.

keystone-to-keystone

keystone-to-keystone federation also utilizes mappings, but has some differences.

An attribute file (e.g. /etc/shibboleth/attribute-map.xml in a Shibboleth implementation) is used to add attributes to the mapping context. Attributes look as follows:

<!-- example from a K2k Shibboleth implementation -->
<Attribute name="openstack_user" id="openstack_user"/>
<Attribute name="openstack_user_domain" id="openstack_user_domain"/>

The service provider must contain a mapping as shown below. openstack_user, and openstack_user_domain match to the attribute names we have in the Identity Provider. It will map any user with the name user1 or admin in the openstack_user attribute and openstack_domain attribute default to a group with id abc1234.

{
    "rules": [
        {
            "local": [
                {
                    "group": {
                        "id": "abc1234"
                    }
                }
            ],
            "remote": [
                {
                    "type": "openstack_user",
                    "any_one_of": [
                        "user1",
                        "admin"
                    ]
                },
                {
                    "type":"openstack_user_domain",
                    "any_one_of": [
                        "Default"
                    ]
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

The possible attributes that can be used in a mapping are openstack_user, openstack_user_domain, openstack_roles, openstack_project, and openstack_project_domain.

orphan:

Setup OpenID Connect

Configuring mod_auth_openidc

Federate Keystone (SP) and an external IdP using OpenID Connect (mod_auth_openidc)

To install mod_auth_openidc on Ubuntu, perform the following:

$ sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-openidc

This module is available for other distributions (Fedora/CentOS/Red Hat) from: https://github.com/pingidentity/mod_auth_openidc/releases

Enable the auth_openidc module:

$ sudo a2enmod auth_openidc

In the keystone vhost file, locate the virtual host entry and add the following entries for OpenID Connect:

<VirtualHost *:5000>

    ...

    OIDCClaimPrefix "OIDC-"
    OIDCResponseType "id_token"
    OIDCScope "openid email profile"
    OIDCProviderMetadataURL <url_of_provider_metadata>
    OIDCClientID <openid_client_id>
    OIDCClientSecret <openid_client_secret>
    OIDCCryptoPassphrase openstack
    OIDCRedirectURI http://localhost:5000/v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/<idp_id>/protocols/openid/auth

    <LocationMatch /v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/.*?/protocols/openid/auth>
      AuthType openid-connect
      Require valid-user
      LogLevel debug
    </LocationMatch>
</VirtualHost>

Note an example of an OIDCProviderMetadataURL instance is: https://accounts.google.com/.well-known/openid-configuration If not using OIDCProviderMetadataURL, then the following attributes must be specified: OIDCProviderIssuer, OIDCProviderAuthorizationEndpoint, OIDCProviderTokenEndpoint, OIDCProviderTokenEndpointAuth, OIDCProviderUserInfoEndpoint, and OIDCProviderJwksUri

Note, if using a mod_wsgi version less than 4.3.0, then the OIDCClaimPrefix must be specified to have only alphanumerics or a dash (“-”). This is because mod_wsgi blocks headers that do not fit this criteria. See http://modwsgi.readthedocs.org/en/latest/release-notes/version-4.3.0.html#bugs-fixed for more details

Once you are done, restart your Apache daemon:

$ sudo service apache2 restart

Tips

  1. When creating a mapping, note that the ‘remote’ attributes will be prefixed, with HTTP_, so for instance, if you set OIDCClaimPrefix to OIDC-, then a typical remote value to check for is: HTTP_OIDC_ISS.
  2. Don’t forget to add openid as an [auth] plugin in keystone.conf, see Configure authentication drivers in keystone.conf
orphan:

Setup Mellon

Configure Apache HTTPD for mod_auth_mellon

Follow the steps outlined at: Running Keystone in HTTPD.

You’ll also need to install the Apache module mod_auth_mellon. For example:

$ apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mellon

Configure your Keystone virtual host and adjust the config to properly handle SAML2 workflow:

Add this WSGIScriptAlias directive to your public vhost configuration:

WSGIScriptAliasMatch ^(/v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/.*?/protocols/.*?/auth)$ /usr/local/bin/keystone-wsgi-public/$1

Make sure the wsgi-keystone.conf contains a <Location> directive for the Mellon module and a <Location> directive for each identity provider

<Location /v3>
    MellonEnable "info"
    MellonSPPrivateKeyFile /etc/apache2/mellon/http_keystone.fqdn.key
    MellonSPCertFile /etc/apache2/mellon/http_keystone.fqdn.cert
    MellonSPMetadataFile /etc/apache2/mellon/http_keystone.fqdn.xml
    MellonIdPMetadataFile /etc/apache2/mellon/idp-metadata.xml
    MellonEndpointPath /v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/mapped/auth/mellon
    MellonIdP "IDP"
</Location>

<Location /v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/mapped/auth>
    AuthType "Mellon"
    MellonEnable "auth"
</Location>

Note

Enable the auth_mellon module, for example:

$ a2enmod auth_mellon

Configuring the Mellon SP Metadata

Mellon provides a script called mellon_create_metadata.sh which generates the values for the config directives MellonSPPrivateKeyFile, MellonSPCertFile, and MellonSPMetadataFile. It is run like this:

$ ./mellon_create_metadata.sh http://keystone.fqdn:5000 \
  http://keystone.fqdn:5000/v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/mapped/auth/mellon

The first parameter is used as the entity ID, a unique identifier for this Keystone SP. You do not have to use the URL, but it is an easy way to uniquely identify each Keystone SP. The second parameter is the full URL for the endpoint path corresponding to the parameter MellonEndpointPath. Note that the metadata generated by this script includes a signing key but not an encryption key, and your IdP (such as testshib.org) may require an encryption key. Simply change the node <KeyDescriptor use=”signing”> to <KeyDescriptor use=”encryption”> or add another key to the file. Check your IdP documentation for details.

After generating the keypair and metadata, copy the files to the locations given in the Mellon directives in your apache configs.

Upload the Service Provider’s Metadata file which you just generated to your Identity Provider. This is the file used as the value of the MellonSPMetadataFile in the config. The IdP may provide a webpage where you can upload the file, or you may be required to submit the file using wget or curl. Please check your IdP documentation for details.

Fetch your Identity Provider’s Metadata file and copy it to the path specified by the MellonIdPMetadataFile directive above. For example:

$ wget --cacert /path/to/ca.crt -O /etc/apache2/mellon/idp-metadata.xml \
  https://idp.fqdn/idp/saml2/metadata

Once you are done, restart the Apache instance that is serving Keystone, for example:

$ service apache2 restart
orphan:

Setup Shibboleth

Configure Apache HTTPD for mod_shibboleth

Follow the steps outlined at: Running Keystone in HTTPD.

You’ll also need to install Shibboleth, for example:

$ apt-get install libapache2-mod-shib2

Configure your Keystone virtual host and adjust the config to properly handle SAML2 workflow:

Add this WSGIScriptAliasMatch directive to your public vhost configuration:

WSGIScriptAliasMatch ^(/v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/.*?/protocols/.*?/auth)$ /usr/local/bin/keystone-wsgi-public/$1

Make sure the keystone.conf vhost file contains a <Location> directive for the Shibboleth module and a <Location> directive for each identity provider:

<Location /Shibboleth.sso>
    SetHandler shib
</Location>

<Location /v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/mapped/auth>
    ShibRequestSetting requireSession 1
    AuthType shibboleth
    ShibExportAssertion Off
    Require valid-user

    <IfVersion < 2.4>
        ShibRequireSession On
        ShibRequireAll On
   </IfVersion>
</Location>

Note

Enable the shib2 module, for example:

$ a2enmod shib2

Restart Apache, for example:

$ service apache2 restart

Configuring shibboleth2.xml

Once you have your Keystone vhost (virtual host) ready, it’s then time to configure Shibboleth and upload your Metadata to the Identity Provider.

Create a new keypair for Shibboleth with:

$ shib-keygen -y <number of years>

The newly created key file will be stored under /etc/shibboleth/sp-key.pem.

Configure your Service Provider by editing /etc/shibboleth/shibboleth2.xml file. You will want to change five settings:

  • Set the SP entity ID. This value usually has the form of a URI but it does not have to resolve to anything. It must uniquely identify your Service Provider to your Identity Provider.
<ApplicationDefaults entityID="http://mysp.example.com/shibboleth">
  • Set the IdP entity ID. This value is determined by the IdP. For example, if Keystone is the IdP:
<SSO entityID="https://myidp.example.com/v3/OS-FEDERATION/saml2/idp">

Example if testshib.org is the IdP:

<SSO entityID="https://idp.testshib.org/idp/shibboleth">
  • Remove the discoveryURL lines unless you want to enable advanced IdP discovery.
  • Add a MetadataProvider block. The URI given here is a real URL that Shibboleth will use to fetch metadata from the IdP. For example, if Keystone is the IdP:
<MetadataProvider type="XML" uri="https://myidp.example.com:5000/v3/OS-FEDERATION/saml2/metadata"/>

Example if testshib.org is the IdP:

<MetadataProvider type="XML" uri="http://www.testshib.org/metadata/testshib-providers.xml" />

You are advised to examine Shibboleth Service Provider Configuration documentation

The result should look like (The example shown below is for reference only, not to be used in a production environment):

<SPConfig xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:native:sp:config"
    xmlns:conf="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:native:sp:config"
    xmlns:saml="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:assertion"
    xmlns:samlp="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:protocol"
    xmlns:md="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:metadata"
    clockSkew="180">

    <!--
    By default, in-memory StorageService, ReplayCache, ArtifactMap, and SessionCache
    are used. See example-shibboleth2.xml for samples of explicitly configuring them.
    -->

    <!--
    To customize behavior for specific resources on Apache, and to link vhosts or
    resources to ApplicationOverride settings below, use web server options/commands.
    See https://wiki.shibboleth.net/confluence/display/SHIB2/NativeSPConfigurationElements for help.

    For examples with the RequestMap XML syntax instead, see the example-shibboleth2.xml
    file, and the https://wiki.shibboleth.net/confluence/display/SHIB2/NativeSPRequestMapHowTo topic.
    -->

    <!-- The ApplicationDefaults element is where most of Shibboleth's SAML bits are defined. -->
    <ApplicationDefaults entityID="https://mysp.example.com/shibboleth">

        <!--
        Controls session lifetimes, address checks, cookie handling, and the protocol handlers.
        You MUST supply an effectively unique handlerURL value for each of your applications.
        The value defaults to /Shibboleth.sso, and should be a relative path, with the SP computing
        a relative value based on the virtual host. Using handlerSSL="true", the default, will force
        the protocol to be https. You should also set cookieProps to "https" for SSL-only sites.
        Note that while we default checkAddress to "false", this has a negative impact on the
        security of your site. Stealing sessions via cookie theft is much easier with this disabled.
        -->
        <Sessions lifetime="28800" timeout="3600" relayState="ss:mem"
                  checkAddress="false" handlerSSL="false" cookieProps="http">

            <!--
            Configures SSO for a default IdP. To allow for >1 IdP, remove
            entityID property and adjust discoveryURL to point to discovery service.
            (Set discoveryProtocol to "WAYF" for legacy Shibboleth WAYF support.)
            You can also override entityID on /Login query string, or in RequestMap/htaccess.
            -->
            <SSO entityID="https://myidp.example.com/v3/OS-FEDERATION/saml2/idp">
              SAML2 SAML1
            </SSO>

            <!-- SAML and local-only logout. -->
            <Logout>SAML2 Local</Logout>

            <!-- Extension service that generates "approximate" metadata based on SP configuration. -->
            <Handler type="MetadataGenerator" Location="/Metadata" signing="false"/>

            <!-- Status reporting service. -->
            <Handler type="Status" Location="/Status" acl="127.0.0.1 ::1"/>

            <!-- Session diagnostic service. -->
            <Handler type="Session" Location="/Session" showAttributeValues="false"/>

            <!-- JSON feed of discovery information. -->
            <Handler type="DiscoveryFeed" Location="/DiscoFeed"/>
        </Sessions>
        <!--
        Allows overriding of error template information/filenames. You can
        also add attributes with values that can be plugged into the templates.
        -->
        <Errors supportContact="root@localhost"
            helpLocation="/about.html"
            styleSheet="/shibboleth-sp/main.css"/>

        <!-- Example of remotely supplied batch of signed metadata. -->
        <!--
        <MetadataProvider type="XML" uri="http://federation.org/federation-metadata.xml"
              backingFilePath="federation-metadata.xml" reloadInterval="7200">
            <MetadataFilter type="RequireValidUntil" maxValidityInterval="2419200"/>
            <MetadataFilter type="Signature" certificate="fedsigner.pem"/>
        </MetadataProvider>
        -->

        <!-- Example of locally maintained metadata. -->
        <!--
        <MetadataProvider type="XML" file="partner-metadata.xml"/>
        -->
        <MetadataProvider type="XML" uri="https://myidp.example.com:5000/v3/OS-FEDERATION/saml2/metadata"/>

        <!-- Map to extract attributes from SAML assertions. -->
        <AttributeExtractor type="XML" validate="true" reloadChanges="false" path="attribute-map.xml"/>

        <!-- Use a SAML query if no attributes are supplied during SSO. -->
        <AttributeResolver type="Query" subjectMatch="true"/>

        <!-- Default filtering policy for recognized attributes, lets other data pass. -->
        <AttributeFilter type="XML" validate="true" path="attribute-policy.xml"/>

        <!-- Simple file-based resolver for using a single keypair. -->
        <CredentialResolver type="File" key="sp-key.pem" certificate="sp-cert.pem"/>

        <!--
        The default settings can be overridden by creating ApplicationOverride elements (see
        the https://wiki.shibboleth.net/confluence/display/SHIB2/NativeSPApplicationOverride topic).
        Resource requests are mapped by web server commands, or the RequestMapper, to an
        applicationId setting.
        Example of a second application (for a second vhost) that has a different entityID.
        Resources on the vhost would map to an applicationId of "admin":
        -->
        <!--
        <ApplicationOverride id="admin" entityID="https://admin.example.org/shibboleth"/>
        -->
    </ApplicationDefaults>

    <!-- Policies that determine how to process and authenticate runtime messages. -->
    <SecurityPolicyProvider type="XML" validate="true" path="security-policy.xml"/>

    <!-- Low-level configuration about protocols and bindings available for use. -->
    <ProtocolProvider type="XML" validate="true" reloadChanges="false" path="protocols.xml"/>

</SPConfig>

If keystone is your IdP, you will need to examine your attributes map file /etc/shibboleth/attribute-map.xml and add the following attributes:

<Attribute name="openstack_user" id="openstack_user"/>
<Attribute name="openstack_roles" id="openstack_roles"/>
<Attribute name="openstack_project" id="openstack_project"/>
<Attribute name="openstack_user_domain" id="openstack_user_domain"/>
<Attribute name="openstack_project_domain" id="openstack_project_domain"/>

For more information see the attributes documentation

Once you are done, restart your Shibboleth daemon and apache:

$ service shibd restart
$ service apache2 restart

Check /var/log/shibboleth/shibd_warn.log for any ERROR or CRIT notices and correct them.

Upload your Service Provider’s metadata file to your Identity Provider. You can fetch it with:

$ wget http://mysp.example.com/Shibboleth.sso/Metadata

This step depends on your Identity Provider choice and is not covered here. If keystone is your Identity Provider you do not need to upload this file.

orphan:

Setup Web Single Sign-On (SSO)

Keystone Changes

  1. Update trusted_dashboard in keystone.conf.

Specify URLs of trusted horizon servers. This value may be repeated multiple times. This setting ensures that keystone only sends token data back to trusted servers. This is performed as a precaution, specifically to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks.

[federation]
trusted_dashboard = http://acme.horizon.com/auth/websso/
trusted_dashboard = http://beta.horizon.com/auth/websso/
  1. Update httpd vhost file with websso information.

The /v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/websso/<protocol> and /v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/{idp_id}/protocols/{protocol_id}/websso routes must be protected by the chosen httpd module. This is performed so the request that originates from horizon will use the same identity provider that is configured in keystone.

Warning

By using the IdP specific route, a user will no longer leverage the Remote ID of a specific Identity Provider, and will be unable to verify that the Identity Provider is trusted, the mapping will remain as the only means to controlling authorization.

If mod_shib is used, then use the following as an example:

<VirtualHost *:5000>

    ...

    <Location ~ "/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/websso/mapped">
      AuthType shibboleth
      Require valid-user
      ShibRequestSetting requireSession 1
      ShibRequireSession On
      ShibExportAssertion Off
    </Location>
    <Location ~ "/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/mapped/websso">
      AuthType shibboleth
      Require valid-user
    </Location>
</VirtualHost>

If mod_auth_openidc is used, then use the following as an example:

<VirtualHost *:5000>

    OIDCRedirectURI http://localhost:5000/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/websso
    OIDCRedirectURI http://localhost:5000/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/openid/websso

    ...

    <Location ~ "/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/websso/openid">
      AuthType openid-connect
      Require valid-user
      ...
    </Location>
    <Location ~ "/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/openid/websso">
      AuthType openid-connect
      Require valid-user
      ...
    </Location>
</VirtualHost>

If mod_auth_kerb is used, then use the following as an example:

<VirtualHost *:5000>

    ...

    <Location ~ "/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/websso/kerberos">
      AuthType Kerberos
      AuthName "Acme Corporation"
      KrbMethodNegotiate on
      KrbMethodK5Passwd off
      Krb5Keytab /etc/apache2/http.keytab
      ...
    </Location>
    <Location ~ "/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/kerberos/websso">
      AuthType Kerberos
      AuthName "Acme Corporation"
      KrbMethodNegotiate on
      KrbMethodK5Passwd off
      Krb5Keytab /etc/apache2/http.keytab
      ...
    </Location>
</VirtualHost>

If mod_auth_mellon is used, then use the following as an example:

<VirtualHost *:5000>

    ...

    <Location ~ "/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/websso/mapped">
      AuthType Mellon
      MellonEnable auth
      Require valid-user
      ...
    </Location>
    <Location ~ "/v3/auth/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/myidp/protocols/mapped/websso">
      AuthType Mellon
      MellonEnable auth
      Require valid-user
      ...
    </Location>
</VirtualHost>

Note

If you are also using SSO via the API, don’t forget to make the Location settings match your configuration used for the keystone identity provider location: /v3/OS-FEDERATION/identity_providers/<idp>/protocols/<protocol>/auth

  1. Update remote_id_attribute in keystone.conf.

A remote id attribute indicates the header to retrieve from the WSGI environment. This header contains information about the identity of the identity provider. For mod_shib this would be Shib-Identity-Provider, for mod_auth_openidc, this could be HTTP_OIDC_ISS. For mod_auth_mellon, this could be MELLON_IDP.

It is recommended that this option be set on a per-protocol basis.

[mapped]
remote_id_attribute = Shib-Identity-Provider
[openid]
remote_id_attribute = HTTP_OIDC_ISS

Alternatively, a generic option may be set at the [federation] level.

[federation]
remote_id_attribute = HTTP_OIDC_ISS

4. Copy the sso_callback_template.html template into the location specified by [federation]/sso_callback_template.

Horizon Changes

Note

Django OpenStack Auth version 1.2.0 or higher is required for these steps.

Identity provider and federation protocol specific webSSO is only available in Django OpenStack Auth version 2.0.0 or higher.

  1. Set the WEBSSO_ENABLED option.

Ensure the WEBSSO_ENABLED option is set to True in horizon’s local_settings.py file, this will provide users with an updated login screen for horizon.

WEBSSO_ENABLED = True
  1. (Optional) Create a list of authentication methods with the WEBSSO_CHOICES option.

Within horizon’s settings.py file, a list of supported authentication methods can be specified. The list includes Keystone federation protocols such as OpenID Connect and SAML, and also keys that map to specific identity provider and federation protocol combinations (as defined in WEBSSO_IDP_MAPPING). With the exception of credentials which is reserved by horizon, and maps to the user name and password used by keystone’s identity backend.

WEBSSO_CHOICES = (
      ("credentials", _("Keystone Credentials")),
      ("openid", _("OpenID Connect")),
      ("mapped", _("Security Assertion Markup Language")),
      ("myidp_openid", "Acme Corporation - OpenID Connect"),
      ("myidp_mapped", "Acme Corporation - SAML2")
    )
  1. (Optional) Create a dictionary of specific identity provider and federation protocol combinations.

A dictionary of specific identity provider and federation protocol combinations. From the selected authentication mechanism, the value will be looked up as keys in the dictionary. If a match is found, it will redirect the user to a identity provider and federation protocol specific WebSSO endpoint in keystone, otherwise it will use the value as the protocol_id when redirecting to the WebSSO by protocol endpoint.

WEBSSO_IDP_MAPPING = {
      "myidp_openid": ("myidp", "openid"),
      "myidp_mapped": ("myidp", "mapped")
    }

Note

The value is expected to be a tuple formatted as: (<idp_id>, <protocol_id>).

  1. (Optional) Specify an initial choice with the WEBSSO_INITIAL_CHOICE option.

The list set by the WEBSSO_CHOICES option will be generated in a drop-down menu in the login screen. The setting WEBSSO_INITIAL_CHOICE will automatically set that choice to be highlighted by default.

WEBSSO_INITIAL_CHOICE = "credentials"
  1. Restart your web server:
$ sudo service apache2 restart