OpenStackClient leverages python-keystoneclient authentication plugins to support a number of different authentication methods.
The user provides some number of authentication credential options.
If an authentication type is not provided (
authentication options are examined to determine if one of the default
types can be used. If no match is found an error is reported and OSC exits.
Note that the authentication call to the Identity service has not yet occurred. It is deferred until the last possible moment in order to reduce the number of unnecessary queries to the server, such as when further processing detects an invalid command.
The Keystone client library implements the base set of plugins. Additional plugins may be available from the Keystone project or other sources.
There are at least three authentication types that are always available:
- Password: A project, username and password are used to identify the
user. An optional domain may also be included. This is the most common
type and is the default any time a username is supplied. An authentication
URL for the Identity service is also required. [Required:
- Token: This is slightly different from the usual token authentication
(described below as token/endpoint) in that a token and an authentication
URL are supplied and the plugin retrieves a new token.
- Token/Endpoint: This is the original token authentication (known as ‘token
flow’ in the early CLI documentation in the OpenStack wiki). It requires
a token and a direct endpoint that is used in the API call. The difference
from the new Token type is this token is used as-is, no call is made
to the Identity service from the client. This type is most often used to
bootstrap a Keystone server where the token is the
keystone.conf. It will also work with other services and a regular scoped token such as one obtained from a
token issuecommand. [Required:
- Others: Other authentication plugins such as SAML, Kerberos, and OAuth1.0
are under development and also supported. To use them, they must be selected
by supplying the
The authentication process in OpenStackClient is all contained in and handled
- On import
- obtains the list of installed Keystone authentication
plugins from the
- builds a list of authentication options from the plugins.
- obtains the list of installed Keystone authentication plugins from the
- The command line arguments are processed and a configuration is loaded from
- A new
ClientManageris created and supplied with the set of options from the command line, environment and/or
--os-auth-typeis provided and is a valid and available plugin
- it is used.
--os-auth-typeis not provided an authentication plugin is selected based on the existing options. This is a short-circuit evaluation, the first match wins.
--os-tokenare both present
- If no selection has been made by now exit with error
- Load the selected plugin class.
- When an operation that requires authentication is attempted
ClientManagermakes the actual initial request to the Identity service.
--os-auth-urlis not supplied for any of the types except Token/Endpoint, exit with an error.
Authenticating using Identity Server API v3¶
To authenticate against an Identity Server API v3, the
OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION environment variable or
--os-identity-api-version option must be changed to
3, instead of the
os-auth-url should also be
$ export OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3 (Defaults to 2.0) $ export OS_AUTH_URL=http://localhost:5000/v3
Since Identity API v3 authentication is a bit more complex, there are additional
options that may be set, either as command line options or environment
variables. The most common case will be a user supplying both user name and
password, along with the project name; previously in v2.0 this would be
sufficient, but since the Identity API v3 has a
Domain component, we need
to tell the client in which domain the user and project exists.
If using a user name and password to authenticate, specify either it’s owning domain name or ID.
If using a project name as authorization scope, specify either it’s owning domain name or ID.
If using a domain as authorization scope, set either it’s name or ID.
Note that if the user and project share the same domain, then simply setting
OS_DEFAULT_DOMAIN to the domain ID is sufficient.
Thus, a minimal set of environment variables would be:
$ export OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3 $ export OS_AUTH_URL=http://localhost:5000/v3 $ export OS_DEFAULT_DOMAIN=default $ export OS_USERNAME=admin $ export OS_PASSWORD=secret $ export OS_PROJECT_NAME=admin