Quick Start

Quick Start

This guide provides step by step instructions to deploy OpenStack using Kolla and Kolla-Ansible on bare metal servers or virtual machines.

Host machine requirements

The host machine must satisfy the following minimum requirements:

  • 2 network interfaces
  • 8GB main memory
  • 40GB disk space


Root access to the deployment host machine is required.


Verify the state of network interfaces. If using a VM spawned on OpenStack as the host machine, the state of the second interface will be DOWN on booting the VM.

ip addr show

Bring up the second network interface if it is down.

ip link set ens4 up

Verify if the second interface has an IP address.

ip addr show

Install dependencies

Kolla builds images which are used by Kolla-Ansible to deploy OpenStack. The deployment is tested on CentOS, Oracle Linux and Ubuntu as both container OS platforms and bare metal deployment targets.


Install is very sensitive about version of components. Please review carefully because default Operating System repos are likely out of date.

Dependencies for the stable/mitaka branch are:

Component Min Version Max Version Comment
Ansible 1.9.4 <2.0.0 On deployment host
Docker 1.10.0 none On target nodes
Docker Python 1.6.0 none On target nodes
Python Jinja2 2.6.0 none On deployment host

Dependencies for the stable/newton are:

Component Min Version Max Version Comment
Ansible 2.0.0 none On deployment host
Docker 1.10.0 none On target nodes
Docker Python 1.6.0 none On target nodes
Python Jinja2 2.8.0 none On deployment host

Dependencies for the stable/ocata branch are:

Component Min Version Max Version Comment
Ansible 2.0.0 none On deployment host
Docker 1.10.0 none On target nodes
Docker Python 1.8.1 none On target nodes
Python Jinja2 2.8.0 none On deployment host

Dependencies since pike (including master branch) are:

Component Min Version Max Version Comment
Ansible 2.2.0 none On deployment host
Docker 1.10.0 none On target nodes
Docker Python 2.0.0 none On target nodes
Python Jinja2 2.8.0 none On deployment host

Make sure the pip package manager is installed and upgraded to the latest before proceeding:

yum install epel-release
yum install python-pip
pip install -U pip

apt-get update
apt-get install python-pip
pip install -U pip

Install dependencies needed to build the code with pip package manager.

yum install python-devel libffi-devel gcc openssl-devel libselinux-python

apt-get install python-dev libffi-dev gcc libssl-dev python-selinux

Kolla deploys OpenStack using Ansible. Install Ansible from distribution packaging if the distro packaging has recommended version available.

Some implemented distro versions of Ansible are too old to use distro packaging. Currently, CentOS and RHEL package Ansible >2.0 which is suitable for use with Kolla. Note that you will need to enable access to the EPEL repository to install via yum – to do so, take a look at Fedora’s EPEL docs and FAQ.

On CentOS or RHEL systems, this can be done using:

yum install ansible

Many DEB based systems do not meet Kolla’s Ansible version requirements. It is recommended to use pip to install Ansible >2.0. Finally Ansible >2.0 may be installed using:

pip install -U ansible


It is recommended to use virtualenv to install non-system packages.

If DEB based systems include a version of Ansible that meets Kolla’s version requirements it can be installed by:

apt-get install ansible


Kolla uses PBR in its implementation. PBR provides version information to Kolla about the package in use. This information is later used when building images to specify the Docker tag used in the image built. When installing the Kolla package via pip, PBR will always use the PBR version information. When obtaining a copy of the software via git, PBR will use the git version information, but ONLY if Kolla has not been pip installed via the pip package manager. This is why there is an operator workflow and a developer workflow.

The following dependencies can be installed by bootstraping the host machine as described in the Automatic host bootstrap section. For manual installation, follow the instructions below:

Since Docker is required to build images as well as be present on all deployed targets, the Kolla community recommends installing the official Docker, Inc. packaged version of Docker for maximum stability and compatibility with the following command:

curl -sSL https://get.docker.io | bash

This command will install the most recent stable version of Docker, but please note that Kolla releases are not in sync with Docker in any way, so some things could stop working with new version. The latest release of Kolla is tested to work with docker-engine>=1.10.0,!=1.13.0. To check your Docker version run this command:

docker --version

When running with systemd, setup docker-engine with the appropriate information in the Docker daemon to launch with. This means setting up the following information in the docker.service file. If you do not set the MountFlags option correctly then kolla-ansible will fail to deploy the neutron-dhcp-agent container and throws APIError/HTTPError. After adding the drop-in unit file as follows, reload and restart the Docker service:

# Create the drop-in unit directory for docker.service
mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/docker.service.d

# Create the drop-in unit file
tee /etc/systemd/system/docker.service.d/kolla.conf <<-'EOF'

Restart Docker by executing the following commands:

# Run these commands to reload the daemon
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart docker

On the target hosts you also need to install the latest version of the Docker python libraries with pip:

pip install -U docker

OpenStack, RabbitMQ, and Ceph require all hosts to have matching times to ensure proper message delivery. In the case of Ceph, it will complain if the hosts differ by more than 0.05 seconds. Some OpenStack services have timers as low as 2 seconds by default. For these reasons it is highly recommended to setup an NTP service of some kind. While ntpd will achieve more accurate time for the deployment if the NTP servers are running in the local deployment environment, chrony is more accurate when syncing the time across a WAN connection. When running Ceph it is recommended to setup ntpd to sync time locally due to the tight time constraints.

To install, start, and enable ntp on CentOS execute the following:

# CentOS 7
yum install ntp
systemctl enable ntpd.service
systemctl start ntpd.service

To install and start on Debian based systems execute the following:

apt-get install ntp

Libvirt is started by default on many operating systems. Please disable libvirt on any machines that will be deployment targets. Only one copy of libvirt may be running at a time.

# CentOS 7
systemctl stop libvirtd.service
systemctl disable libvirtd.service

# Ubuntu
service libvirt-bin stop
update-rc.d libvirt-bin disable

On Ubuntu, apparmor will sometimes prevent libvirt from working.

/usr/sbin/libvirtd: error while loading shared libraries:
libvirt-admin.so.0: cannot open shared object file: Permission denied

If you are seeing the libvirt container fail with the error above, disable the libvirt profile.

sudo apparmor_parser -R /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.libvirtd


On Ubuntu 16.04, please uninstall lxd and lxc packages. (An issue exists with cgroup mounts, mounts exponentially increasing when restarting container).

Additional steps for upstart and other non-systemd distros

For other non-systemd distros, run the following.

mount --make-shared /run
mount --make-shared /var/lib/nova/mnt

If /var/lib/nova/mnt is not present, do the workaround below.

mkdir -p /var/lib/nova/mnt /var/lib/nova/mnt1
mount --bind /var/lib/nova/mnt1 /var/lib/nova/mnt
mount --make-shared /var/lib/nova/mnt

For mounting /run and /var/lib/nova/mnt as shared upon startup, edit /etc/rc.local to add the following.

mount --make-shared /run
mount --make-shared /var/lib/nova/mnt


If CentOS/Fedora/OracleLinux container images are built on an Ubuntu host, the back-end storage driver must not be AUFS (see the known issues in Building Container Images).

Install Kolla for deployment or evaluation

Install kolla-ansible and its dependencies using pip.

pip install kolla-ansible

Copy the configuration files globals.yml and passwords.yml to /etc directory.

cp -r /usr/share/kolla-ansible/etc_examples/kolla /etc/kolla/

cp -r /usr/local/share/kolla-ansible/etc_examples/kolla /etc/kolla/

The inventory files (all-in-one and multinode) are located in /usr/local/share/kolla-ansible/ansible/inventory. Copy the configuration files to the current directory.

cp /usr/share/kolla-ansible/ansible/inventory/* .

cp /usr/local/share/kolla-ansible/ansible/inventory/* .

Install Kolla for development

Clone the Kolla and Kolla-Ansible repositories from git.

git clone https://github.com/openstack/kolla
git clone https://github.com/openstack/kolla-ansible

Kolla-ansible holds configuration files (globals.yml and passwords.yml) in etc/kolla. Copy the configuration files to /etc directory.

cp -r kolla-ansible/etc/kolla /etc/kolla/

Kolla-ansible holds the inventory files (all-in-one and multinode) in ansible/inventory. Copy the configuration files to the current directory.

cp kolla-ansible/ansible/inventory/* .

Local Registry

A local registry is recommended but not required for an all-in-one installation when developing for master. Since no master images are available on docker hub, the docker cache may be used for all-in-one deployments. When deploying multinode, a registry is strongly recommended to serve as a single source of images. Reference the Multinode Deployment of Kolla for more information on using a local Docker registry. Otherwise, the Docker Hub Image Registry contains all images from each of Kolla’s major releases. The latest release tag is 3.0.2 for Newton.

Automatic host bootstrap

Edit the /etc/kolla/globals.yml file to configure interfaces.

network_interface: "ens3"
neutron_external_interface: "ens4"

Generate passwords. This will populate all empty fields in the /etc/kolla/passwords.yml file using randomly generated values to secure the deployment. Optionally, the passwords may be populated in the file by hand.


To quickly prepare hosts, playbook bootstrap-servers can be used. This is an Ansible playbook which works on Ubuntu 16.04 and CentOS 7 hosts to install and prepare the cluster for OpenStack installation.

kolla-ansible -i <<inventory file>> bootstrap-servers

Build container images

When running with systemd, edit the file /etc/systemd/system/docker.service.d/kolla.conf to include the MTU size to be used for Docker containers.

ExecStart=/usr/bin/docker daemon \
 -H fd:// \
 --mtu 1400


Depend of your Docker version and distro, ExecStart command may be different which may cause Docker start failures. The default ExecStart command for your system can be obtained from /usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service.


The MTU size should be less than or equal to the MTU size allowed on the network interfaces of the host machine. If the MTU size allowed on the network interfaces of the host machine is 1500 then this step can be skipped. This step is relevant for building containers. Actual openstack services won’t be affected.


Verify that the MountFlags parameter is configured as shared. If you do not set the MountFlags option correctly then kolla-ansible will fail to deploy the neutron-dhcp-agent container and throws APIError/HTTPError.

Restart Docker and ensure that Docker is running.

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart docker

The Kolla community builds and pushes tested images for each tagged release of Kolla. Pull required images with appropriate tags in target nodes.

kolla-ansible pull -i /path/to/all-in-one

View the images.

docker images

Developers running from master are required to build container images as the Docker Hub does not contain built images for the master branch. Reference the Building Container Images for more advanced build configuration.

To build images using default parameters run:


By default kolla-build will build all containers using CentOS as the base image and binary installation as base installation method. To change this behavior, please use the following parameters with kolla-build:

--base [ubuntu|centos|oraclelinux]
--type [binary|source]


–base and –type can be added to the above kolla-build command if different distributions or types are desired.

It is also possible to build individual container images. As an example, if the glance images failed to build, all glance related images can be rebuilt as follows:

kolla-build glance

In order to see all available parameters, run:

kolla-build -h

View the images.

docker images


Mixing of OpenStack releases with Kolla releases (example, updating kolla-build.conf to build Mitaka Keystone to be deployed with Newton Kolla) is not recommended and will likely cause issues.

Deploy Kolla

Kolla-Ansible is used to deploy containers by using images built by Kolla. There are two methods of deployment: all-in-one and multinode. The all-in-one deployment is similar to devstack deploy which installs all OpenStack services on a single host. In the multinode deployment, OpenStack services can be run on specific hosts. This documentation describes deploying an all-in-one setup. To setup multinode see the Multinode Deployment of Kolla.


For multinode deployment of kolla, check if all the hostnames are resolvable. RabbitMQ can’t work with IP addresses, so we need to make sure that all RabbitMQ cluster hosts can resolve each other’s hostnames.

Each method is represented as an Ansible inventory file. More information on the Ansible inventory file can be found in the Ansible inventory introduction.

All variables for the environment can be specified in the files: /etc/kolla/globals.yml and /etc/kolla/passwords.yml.

Generate passwords for /etc/kolla/passwords.yml using the provided kolla-genpwd tool. The tool will populate all empty fields in the /etc/kolla/passwords.yml file using randomly generated values to secure the deployment. Optionally, the passwords may be populate in the file by hand.


Start by editing /etc/kolla/globals.yml. Check and edit, if needed, these parameters: kolla_base_distro, kolla_install_type. The default for kolla_base_distro is centos and for kolla_install_type is binary. If you want to use ubuntu with source type, then you should make sure globals.yml has the following entries:

kolla_base_distro: "ubuntu"
kolla_install_type: "source"

Please specify an unused IP address in the network to act as a VIP for kolla_internal_vip_address. The VIP will be used with keepalived and added to the api_interface as specified in the globals.yml

kolla_internal_vip_address: “”


The kolla_internal_vip_address must be unique and should belong to the same network to which the first network interface belongs to.


The kolla_base_distro and kolla_install_type should be same as base and install_type used in kolla-build command line.

The network_interface variable is the interface to which Kolla binds API services. For example, when starting Mariadb, it will bind to the IP on the interface list in the network_interface variable.

network_interface: "ens3"

The neutron_external_interface variable is the interface that will be used for the external bridge in Neutron. Without this bridge the deployment instance traffic will be unable to access the rest of the Internet.

neutron_external_interface: "ens4"

In case of deployment using the nested environment (eg. Using Virtualbox VM’s, KVM VM’s), verify if your compute node supports hardware acceleration for virtual machines by executing the following command in the compute node.

egrep -c '(vmx|svm)' /proc/cpuinfo

If this command returns a value of zero, your compute node does not support hardware acceleration and you must configure libvirt to use QEMU instead of KVM. Create a file /etc/kolla/config/nova/nova-compute.conf and add the content shown below.

mkdir -p /etc/kolla/config/nova
cat << EOF > /etc/kolla/config/nova/nova-compute.conf
virt_type = qemu
cpu_mode = none

For all-in-one deployments, the following commands can be run. These will setup all of the containers on the localhost. These commands will be wrapped in the kolla-script in the future.


Even for all-in-one installs it is possible to use the Docker registry for deployment, although not strictly required.

First, validate that the deployment targets are in a state where Kolla may deploy to them. Provide the correct path to inventory file in the following commands.

kolla-ansible prechecks -i /path/to/all-in-one

Deploy OpenStack.

kolla-ansible deploy -i /path/to/all-in-one

List the running containers.

docker ps -a

Generate the admin-openrc.sh file. The file will be created in /etc/kolla/ directory.

kolla-ansible post-deploy

To test your deployment, run the following commands to initialize the network with a glance image and neutron networks.

. /etc/kolla/admin-openrc.sh

cd /usr/share/kolla-ansible

cd /usr/local/share/kolla-ansible


Different hardware results in variance with deployment times.

After successful deployment of OpenStack, the Horizon dashboard will be available by entering IP address or hostname from kolla_external_fqdn, or kolla_internal_fqdn. If these variables were not set during deploy they default to kolla_internal_vip_address.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Except where otherwise noted, this document is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. See all OpenStack Legal Documents.