Operating Kolla


Kolla uses the x.y.z semver nomenclature for naming versions. Kolla’s initial Pike release was 5.0.0 and the initial Queens release is 6.0.0. The Kolla community commits to release z-stream updates every 45 days that resolve defects in the stable version in use and publish those images to the Docker Hub registry.

To prevent confusion, the Kolla community recommends using an alpha identifier x.y.z.a where a represents any customization done on the part of the operator. For example, if an operator intends to modify one of the Docker files or the repos from the originals and build custom images for the Pike version, the operator should start with version and increase alpha for each release. Alpha tag usage is at discretion of the operator. The alpha identifier could be a number as recommended or a string of the operator’s choosing.

To customize the version number uncomment openstack_release in globals.yml and specify the desired version number or name (e.g. victoria, wallaby). If openstack_release is not specified, Kolla will deploy or upgrade using the version number information contained in the kolla-ansible package.

Upgrade procedure


If you have set enable_cells to yes then you should read the upgrade notes in the Nova cells guide.

Kolla’s strategy for upgrades is to never make a mess and to follow consistent patterns during deployment such that upgrades from one environment to the next are simple to automate.

Kolla implements a one command operation for upgrading an existing deployment consisting of a set of containers and configuration data to a new deployment.

Limitations and Recommendations


Varying degrees of success have been reported with upgrading the libvirt container with a running virtual machine in it. The libvirt upgrade still needs a bit more validation, but the Kolla community feels confident this mechanism can be used with the correct Docker storage driver.


Because of system technical limitations, upgrade of a libvirt container when using software emulation (virt_type = qemu in nova.conf), does not work at all. This is acceptable because KVM is the recommended virtualization driver to use with Nova.


Please note that when the use_preconfigured_databases flag is set to "yes", you need to have the log_bin_trust_function_creators set to 1 by your database administrator before performing the upgrade.


If you have separate keys for nova and cinder, please be sure to set ceph_nova_keyring: ceph.client.nova.keyring and ceph_nova_user: nova in /etc/kolla/globals.yml

Ubuntu Focal 20.04

The Victoria release adds support for Ubuntu Focal 20.04 as a host operating system. Ubuntu users upgrading from Ussuri should first upgrade OpenStack containers to Victoria, which uses the Ubuntu Focal 20.04 base container image. Hosts should then be upgraded to Ubuntu Focal 20.04.

CentOS Stream 8

The Wallaby release adds support for CentOS Stream 8 as a host operating system. CentOS Stream 8 support will also be added to a Victoria stable release. CentOS Linux users upgrading from Victoria should first migrate hosts and container images from CentOS Linux to CentOS Stream before upgrading to Wallaby.


While there may be some cases where it is possible to upgrade by skipping this step (i.e. by upgrading only the openstack_release version) - generally, when looking at a more comprehensive upgrade, the kolla-ansible package itself should be upgraded first. This will include reviewing some of the configuration and inventory files. On the operator/master node, a backup of the /etc/kolla directory may be desirable.

If upgrading to wallaby, upgrade the kolla-ansible package:

pip install --upgrade git+https://opendev.org/openstack/kolla-ansible@stable/wallaby

If this is a minor upgrade, and you do not wish to upgrade kolla-ansible itself, you may skip this step.

The inventory file for the deployment should be updated, as the newer sample inventory files may have updated layout or other relevant changes. Use the newer wallaby one as a starting template, and merge your existing inventory layout into a copy of the one from here:


In addition the wallaby sample configuration files should be taken from:

# CentOS

# Ubuntu

At this stage, files that are still at the previous version and need manual updating are:

  • /etc/kolla/globals.yml

  • /etc/kolla/passwords.yml

For globals.yml relevant changes should be merged into a copy of the new template, and then replace the file in /etc/kolla with the updated version. For passwords.yml, see the kolla-mergepwd instructions in Tips and Tricks.

For the kolla docker images, the openstack_release is updated to wallaby:

openstack_release: wallaby

Once the kolla release, the inventory file, and the relevant configuration files have been updated in this way, the operator may first want to ‘pull’ down the images to stage the wallaby versions. This can be done safely ahead of time, and does not impact the existing services. (optional)

Run the command to pull the wallaby images for staging:

kolla-ansible pull

At a convenient time, the upgrade can now be run (it will complete more quickly if the images have been staged ahead of time).

Perform the Upgrade

To perform the upgrade:

kolla-ansible upgrade

After this command is complete the containers will have been recreated from the new images.

Tips and Tricks

Kolla Ansible CLI

When running the kolla-ansible CLI, additional arguments may be passed to ansible-playbook via the EXTRA_OPTS environment variable.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY deploy is used to deploy and start all Kolla containers.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY destroy is used to clean up containers and volumes in the cluster.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY mariadb_recovery is used to recover a completely stopped mariadb cluster.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY prechecks is used to check if all requirements are meet before deploy for each of the OpenStack services.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY post-deploy is used to do post deploy on deploy node to get the admin openrc file.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY pull is used to pull all images for containers.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY reconfigure is used to reconfigure OpenStack service.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY upgrade is used to upgrades existing OpenStack Environment.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY check is used to do post-deployment smoke tests.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY stop is used to stop running containers.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY deploy-containers is used to check and if necessary update containers, without generating configuration.

kolla-ansible -i INVENTORY prune-images is used to prune orphaned Docker images on hosts.


In order to do smoke tests, requires kolla_enable_sanity_checks=yes.


The following commands manage the Kolla Ansible passwords file.

kolla-mergepwd --old OLD_PASSWDS --new NEW_PASSWDS --final FINAL_PASSWDS is used to merge passwords from old installation with newly generated passwords during upgrade of Kolla release. The workflow is:

  1. Save old passwords from /etc/kolla/passwords.yml into passwords.yml.old.

  2. Generate new passwords via kolla-genpwd as passwords.yml.new.

  3. Merge passwords.yml.old and passwords.yml.new into /etc/kolla/passwords.yml.

For example:

mv /etc/kolla/passwords.yml passwords.yml.old
cp kolla-ansible/etc/kolla/passwords.yml passwords.yml.new
kolla-genpwd -p passwords.yml.new
kolla-mergepwd --old passwords.yml.old --new passwords.yml.new --final /etc/kolla/passwords.yml


kolla-mergepwd, by default, keeps old, unused passwords intact. To alter this behavior, and remove such entries, use the --clean argument when invoking kolla-mergepwd.


Kolla ships with several utilities intended to facilitate ease of operation.

tools/cleanup-containers is used to remove deployed containers from the system. This can be useful when you want to do a new clean deployment. It will preserve the registry and the locally built images in the registry, but will remove all running Kolla containers from the local Docker daemon. It also removes the named volumes.

tools/cleanup-host is used to remove remnants of network changes triggered on the Docker host when the neutron-agents containers are launched. This can be useful when you want to do a new clean deployment, particularly one changing the network topology.

tools/cleanup-images --all is used to remove all Docker images built by Kolla from the local Docker cache.