Non Root containers¶
The OpenStack services, with a few exceptions, run as non root inside
of Kolla’s containers. Kolla uses the Docker provided
USER flag to
set the appropriate user for each service.
The state of SELinux in Kolla is a work in progress. The short answer is you must disable it until selinux polices are written for the Docker containers.
To understand why Kolla needs to set certain selinux policies for services that you wouldn’t expect to need them (rabbitmq, mariadb, glance and so on) we must take a step back and talk about Docker.
Docker has not had the concept of persistent containerized data until recently. This means when a container is run the data it creates is destroyed when the container goes away, which is obviously no good in the case of upgrades.
It was suggested data containers could solve this issue by only holding data if they were never recreated, leading to a scary state where you could lose access to your data if the wrong command was executed. The real answer to this problem came in Docker 1.9 with the introduction of named volumes. You could now address volumes directly by name removing the need for so called data containers all together.
Another solution to the persistent data issue is to use a host bind
mount which involves making, for sake of example, host directory
var/lib/mysql available inside the container at
This absolutely solves the problem of persistent data, but it introduces
another security issue, permissions. With this host bind mount solution
the data in
var/lib/mysql will be owned by the mysql user in the
container. Unfortunately, that mysql user in the container could have
any UID/GID and thats who will own the data outside the container
introducing a potential security risk. Additionally, this method
dirties the host and requires host permissions to the directories
to bind mount.
The solution Kolla chose is named volumes.
Why does this matter in the case of selinux? Kolla does not run the process. It is launching as root in most cases. So glance-api is run as the glance user, and mariadb is run as the mysql user, and so on. When mounting a named volume in the location that the persistent data will be stored it will be owned by the root user and group. The mysql user has no permissions to write to this folder now. What Kolla does is allow a select few commands to be run with sudo as the mysql user. This allows the mysql user to chown a specific, explicit directory and store its data in a named volume without the security risk and other downsides of host bind mounts. The downside to this is selinux blocks those sudo commands and it will do so until we make explicit policies to allow those operations.
Prior to Queens, when users want to connect using non-root user, they must add
ansible_become=True which is inconvenient and add security
risk. In Queens, almost all services have support for escalation for only
necessary tasks. In Rocky, all services have this capability, so users do not
need to add
ansible_become option if connection user has passwordless sudo
Prior to Rocky,
ansible_user (the user which Ansible uses to connect
via SSH) is default configuration owner and group in target nodes.
From Rocky release, Kolla support connection using any user which has
passwordless sudo capability. For setting custom owner user and group, user
Prior to Zed, Kolla Ansible would disable any system firewall leaving configuration up to the end users. Firewalld is now supported and will configure external api ports for each enabled OpenStack service.
The following variables should be configured in Kolla Ansible’s
The default zone to configure ports on for external API Access
String - defaults to the public zone
Setting to true will enable external API ports configuration
Bool - set to true or false
Setting to false will stop Kolla Ansible from disabling the systems firewall
Bool - set to true or false
Firewalld needs to be installed beforehand.
Kayobe can be used to automate the installation and configuration of firewalld before running Kolla Ansible. If you do not use Kayobe you must ensure that that firewalld has been installed and setup correctly.
You can check the current active zones by running the command below. If the output of the command is blank then no zones are configured as active.
sudo firewall-cmd --get-active-zones
You should ensure that the system is reachable via SSH to avoid lockout, to add ssh to a particular zone run the following command.
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=<zone> --add-service=ssh
You should also set the required interface on a particular zone by running the below command. This will mark the zone as active on the specified interface.
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=<zone> --change-interface=<interface>
if more than one interface is required on a specific zone this can be achieved by running
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-interface=<additional interface>
Any other ports that need to be opened on the system should be done before hand. The following command will add additional ports to a zone
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=8080/tcp --permanent
Dependent on your infrastructure security policy you may wish to add a policy of drop on the public zone this can be achieved by running the following command.
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --set-target=DROP --zone=public
To apply changes to the system firewall run
sudo firewalld-cmd --reload
For additional information and configuration please see: https://firewalld.org/documentation/man-pages/firewall-cmd.html