Host aggregates

Host aggregates are a mechanism for partitioning hosts in an OpenStack cloud, or a region of an OpenStack cloud, based on arbitrary characteristics. Examples where an administrator may want to do this include where a group of hosts have additional hardware or performance characteristics.

Host aggregates started out as a way to use Xen hypervisor resource pools, but have been generalized to provide a mechanism to allow administrators to assign key-value pairs to groups of machines. Each node can have multiple aggregates, each aggregate can have multiple key-value pairs, and the same key-value pair can be assigned to multiple aggregates. This information can be used in the scheduler to enable advanced scheduling, to set up Xen hypervisor resource pools or to define logical groups for migration.

Host aggregates are not explicitly exposed to users. Instead administrators map flavors to host aggregates. Administrators do this by setting metadata on a host aggregate, and matching flavor extra specifications. The scheduler then endeavors to match user requests for instances of the given flavor to a host aggregate with the same key-value pair in its metadata. Compute nodes can be in more than one host aggregate. Weight multipliers can be controlled on a per-aggregate basis by setting the desired xxx_weight_multiplier aggregate metadata.

Administrators are able to optionally expose a host aggregate as an availability zone. Availability zones are different from host aggregates in that they are explicitly exposed to the user, and hosts can only be in a single availability zone. Administrators can configure a default availability zone where instances will be scheduled when the user fails to specify one. For more information on how to do this, refer to Availability Zones.

Configure scheduler to support host aggregates

One common use case for host aggregates is when you want to support scheduling instances to a subset of compute hosts because they have a specific capability. For example, you may want to allow users to request compute hosts that have SSD drives if they need access to faster disk I/O, or access to compute hosts that have GPU cards to take advantage of GPU-accelerated code.

To configure the scheduler to support host aggregates, the filter_scheduler.enabled_filters configuration option must contain the AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter in addition to the other filters used by the scheduler. Add the following line to nova.conf on the host that runs the nova-scheduler service to enable host aggregates filtering, as well as the other filters that are typically enabled:

[filter_scheduler]
enabled_filters=...,AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter

Example: Specify compute hosts with SSDs

This example configures the Compute service to enable users to request nodes that have solid-state drives (SSDs). You create a fast-io host aggregate in the nova availability zone and you add the ssd=true key-value pair to the aggregate. Then, you add the node1, and node2 compute nodes to it.

$ openstack aggregate create --zone nova fast-io
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| Field             | Value                      |
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| availability_zone | nova                       |
| created_at        | 2016-12-22T07:31:13.013466 |
| deleted           | False                      |
| deleted_at        | None                       |
| id                | 1                          |
| name              | fast-io                    |
| updated_at        | None                       |
+-------------------+----------------------------+

$ openstack aggregate set --property ssd=true 1
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| Field             | Value                      |
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| availability_zone | nova                       |
| created_at        | 2016-12-22T07:31:13.000000 |
| deleted           | False                      |
| deleted_at        | None                       |
| hosts             | []                         |
| id                | 1                          |
| name              | fast-io                    |
| properties        | ssd='true'                 |
| updated_at        | None                       |
+-------------------+----------------------------+

$ openstack aggregate add host 1 node1
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                            |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | nova                                             |
| created_at        | 2016-12-22T07:31:13.000000                       |
| deleted           | False                                            |
| deleted_at        | None                                             |
| hosts             | [u'node1']                                       |
| id                | 1                                                |
| metadata          | {u'ssd': u'true', u'availability_zone': u'nova'} |
| name              | fast-io                                          |
| updated_at        | None                                             |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+

$ openstack aggregate add host 1 node2
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                            |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | nova                                             |
| created_at        | 2016-12-22T07:31:13.000000                       |
| deleted           | False                                            |
| deleted_at        | None                                             |
| hosts             | [u'node1', u'node2']                             |
| id                | 1                                                |
| metadata          | {u'ssd': u'true', u'availability_zone': u'nova'} |
| name              | fast-io                                          |
| updated_at        | None                                             |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+

Use the openstack flavor create command to create the ssd.large flavor called with an ID of 6, 8 GB of RAM, 80 GB root disk, and 4 vCPUs.

$ openstack flavor create --id 6 --ram 8192 --disk 80 --vcpus 4 ssd.large
+----------------------------+-----------+
| Field                      | Value     |
+----------------------------+-----------+
| OS-FLV-DISABLED:disabled   | False     |
| OS-FLV-EXT-DATA:ephemeral  | 0         |
| disk                       | 80        |
| id                         | 6         |
| name                       | ssd.large |
| os-flavor-access:is_public | True      |
| ram                        | 8192      |
| rxtx_factor                | 1.0       |
| swap                       |           |
| vcpus                      | 4         |
+----------------------------+-----------+

Once the flavor is created, specify one or more key-value pairs that match the key-value pairs on the host aggregates with scope aggregate_instance_extra_specs. In this case, that is the aggregate_instance_extra_specs:ssd=true key-value pair. Setting a key-value pair on a flavor is done using the openstack flavor set command.

$ openstack flavor set \
    --property aggregate_instance_extra_specs:ssd=true ssd.large

Once it is set, you should see the extra_specs property of the ssd.large flavor populated with a key of ssd and a corresponding value of true.

$ openstack flavor show ssd.large
+----------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Field                      | Value                                     |
+----------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| OS-FLV-DISABLED:disabled   | False                                     |
| OS-FLV-EXT-DATA:ephemeral  | 0                                         |
| disk                       | 80                                        |
| id                         | 6                                         |
| name                       | ssd.large                                 |
| os-flavor-access:is_public | True                                      |
| properties                 | aggregate_instance_extra_specs:ssd='true' |
| ram                        | 8192                                      |
| rxtx_factor                | 1.0                                       |
| swap                       |                                           |
| vcpus                      | 4                                         |
+----------------------------+-------------------------------------------+

Now, when a user requests an instance with the ssd.large flavor, the scheduler only considers hosts with the ssd=true key-value pair. In this example, these are node1 and node2.

Aggregates in Placement

Aggregates also exist in placement and are not the same thing as host aggregates in nova. These aggregates are defined (purely) as groupings of related resource providers. Since compute nodes in nova are represented in placement as resource providers, they can be added to a placement aggregate as well. For example, get the UUID of the compute node using openstack hypervisor list and add it to an aggregate in placement using openstack resource provider aggregate set.

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version=2.53 hypervisor list
+--------------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-------+
| ID                                   | Hypervisor Hostname | Hypervisor Type | Host IP         | State |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-------+
| 815a5634-86fb-4e1e-8824-8a631fee3e06 | node1               | QEMU            | 192.168.1.123   | up    |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-------+

$ openstack --os-placement-api-version=1.2 resource provider aggregate set \
    --aggregate df4c74f3-d2c4-4991-b461-f1a678e1d161 \
    815a5634-86fb-4e1e-8824-8a631fee3e06

Some scheduling filter operations can be performed by placement for increased speed and efficiency.

Note

The nova-api service attempts (as of nova 18.0.0) to automatically mirror the association of a compute host with an aggregate when an administrator adds or removes a host to/from a nova host aggregate. This should alleviate the need to manually create those association records in the placement API using the openstack resource provider aggregate set CLI invocation.

Tenant Isolation with Placement

In order to use placement to isolate tenants, there must be placement aggregates that match the membership and UUID of nova host aggregates that you want to use for isolation. The same key pattern in aggregate metadata used by the AggregateMultiTenancyIsolation filter controls this function, and is enabled by setting scheduler.limit_tenants_to_placement_aggregate to True.

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version=2.53 aggregate create myagg
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | None                                 |
| created_at        | 2018-03-29T16:22:23.175884           |
| deleted           | False                                |
| deleted_at        | None                                 |
| id                | 4                                    |
| name              | myagg                                |
| updated_at        | None                                 |
| uuid              | 019e2189-31b3-49e1-aff2-b220ebd91c24 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version=2.53 aggregate add host myagg node1
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | None                                 |
| created_at        | 2018-03-29T16:22:23.175884           |
| deleted           | False                                |
| deleted_at        | None                                 |
| hosts             | [u'node1']                           |
| id                | 4                                    |
| name              | myagg                                |
| updated_at        | None                                 |
| uuid              | 019e2189-31b3-49e1-aff2-b220ebd91c24 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

$ openstack project list -f value | grep 'demo'
9691591f913949818a514f95286a6b90 demo

$ openstack aggregate set \
    --property filter_tenant_id=9691591f913949818a514f95286a6b90 myagg

$ openstack --os-placement-api-version=1.2 resource provider aggregate set \
    --aggregate 019e2189-31b3-49e1-aff2-b220ebd91c24 \
    815a5634-86fb-4e1e-8824-8a631fee3e06

Note that the filter_tenant_id metadata key can be optionally suffixed with any string for multiple tenants, such as filter_tenant_id3=$tenantid.

Usage

Much of the configuration of host aggregates is driven from the API or command-line clients. For example, to create a new aggregate and add hosts to it using the openstack client, run:

$ openstack aggregate create my-aggregate
$ openstack aggregate add host my-aggregate my-host

To list all aggregates and show information about a specific aggregate, run:

$ openstack aggegrate list
$ openstack aggregate show my-aggregate

To set and unset a property on the aggregate, run:

$ openstack aggregate set --property pinned=true my-aggregrate
$ openstack aggregate unset --property pinned my-aggregate

To rename the aggregate, run:

$ openstack aggregate set --name my-awesome-aggregate my-aggregate

To remove a host from an aggregate and delete the aggregate, run:

$ openstack aggregate remove host my-aggregate my-host
$ openstack aggregate delete my-aggregate

For more information, refer to the OpenStack Client documentation.

Configuration

In addition to CRUD operations enabled by the API and clients, the following configuration options can be used to configure how host aggregates and the related availability zones feature operate under the hood:

Finally, as discussed previously, there are a number of host aggregate-specific scheduler filters. These are:

The following configuration options are applicable to the scheduler configuration: