Compute schedulers

Compute schedulers

Compute uses the nova-scheduler service to determine how to dispatch compute requests. For example, the nova-scheduler service determines on which host a VM should launch. In the context of filters, the term host means a physical node that has a nova-compute service running on it. You can configure the scheduler through a variety of options.

Compute is configured with the following default scheduler options in the /etc/nova/nova.conf file:

[scheduler]
driver = filter_scheduler

[filter_scheduler]
available_filters = nova.scheduler.filters.all_filters
enabled_filters = RetryFilter, AvailabilityZoneFilter, ComputeFilter, ComputeCapabilitiesFilter, ImagePropertiesFilter, ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter, ServerGroupAffinityFilter

By default, the scheduler driver is configured as a filter scheduler, as described in the next section. In the default configuration, this scheduler considers hosts that meet all the following criteria:

  • Have not been attempted for scheduling purposes (RetryFilter).
  • Are in the requested availability zone (AvailabilityZoneFilter).
  • Can service the request (ComputeFilter).
  • Satisfy the extra specs associated with the instance type (ComputeCapabilitiesFilter).
  • Satisfy any architecture, hypervisor type, or virtual machine mode properties specified on the instance’s image properties (ImagePropertiesFilter).
  • Are on a different host than other instances of a group (if requested) (ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter).
  • Are in a set of group hosts (if requested) (ServerGroupAffinityFilter).

The scheduler chooses a new host when an instance is migrated.

When evacuating instances from a host, the scheduler service honors the target host defined by the administrator on the nova evacuate command. If a target is not defined by the administrator, the scheduler determines the target host. For information about instance evacuation, see Evacuate instances.

Filter scheduler

The filter scheduler (nova.scheduler.filter_scheduler.FilterScheduler) is the default scheduler for scheduling virtual machine instances. It supports filtering and weighting to make informed decisions on where a new instance should be created.

When the filter scheduler receives a request for a resource, it first applies filters to determine which hosts are eligible for consideration when dispatching a resource. Filters are binary: either a host is accepted by the filter, or it is rejected. Hosts that are accepted by the filter are then processed by a different algorithm to decide which hosts to use for that request, described in the Weights section.

Filtering

../../_images/filteringWorkflow1.png

The available_filters configuration option in nova.conf provides the Compute service with the list of the filters that are available for use by the scheduler. The default setting specifies all of the filters that are included with the Compute service:

[filter_scheduler]
available_filters = nova.scheduler.filters.all_filters

This configuration option can be specified multiple times. For example, if you implemented your own custom filter in Python called myfilter.MyFilter and you wanted to use both the built-in filters and your custom filter, your nova.conf file would contain:

[filter_scheduler]
available_filters = nova.scheduler.filters.all_filters
available_filters = myfilter.MyFilter

The enabled_filters configuration option in nova.conf defines the list of filters that are applied by the nova-scheduler service. The default filters are:

[filter_scheduler]
enabled_filters = RetryFilter, AvailabilityZoneFilter, ComputeCapabilitiesFilter, ImagePropertiesFilter, ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter, ServerGroupAffinityFilter

Compute filters

The following sections describe the available compute filters.

AggregateCoreFilter

Filters host by CPU core numbers with a per-aggregate cpu_allocation_ratio value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used. For information about how to use this filter, see Host aggregates and availability zones. See also CoreFilter.

Note the cpu_allocation_ratio bug 1804125 restriction.

AggregateDiskFilter

Filters host by disk allocation with a per-aggregate disk_allocation_ratio value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used. For information about how to use this filter, see Host aggregates and availability zones. See also DiskFilter.

Note the disk_allocation_ratio bug 1804125 restriction.

AggregateImagePropertiesIsolation

Matches properties defined in an image’s metadata against those of aggregates to determine host matches:

  • If a host belongs to an aggregate and the aggregate defines one or more metadata that matches an image’s properties, that host is a candidate to boot the image’s instance.
  • If a host does not belong to any aggregate, it can boot instances from all images.

For example, the following aggregate myWinAgg has the Windows operating system as metadata (named ‘windows’):

$ openstack aggregate show myWinAgg
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| Field             | Value                      |
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| availability_zone | zone1                      |
| created_at        | 2017-01-01T15:36:44.000000 |
| deleted           | False                      |
| deleted_at        | None                       |
| hosts             | [u'sf-devel']              |
| id                | 1                          |
| name              | myWinAgg                   |
| properties        | os_distro='windows'        |
| updated_at        | None                       |
+-------------------+----------------------------+

In this example, because the following Win-2012 image has the windows property, it boots on the sf-devel host (all other filters being equal):

$ openstack image show Win-2012
+------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| Field            | Value                                                |
+------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| checksum         | ee1eca47dc88f4879d8a229cc70a07c6                     |
| container_format | bare                                                 |
| created_at       | 2016-12-13T09:30:30Z                                 |
| disk_format      | qcow2                                                |
| ...                                                                     |
| name             | Win-2012                                             |
| ...                                                                     |
| properties       | os_distro='windows'                                  |
| ...                                                                     |

You can configure the AggregateImagePropertiesIsolation filter by using the following options in the nova.conf file:

# Considers only keys matching the given namespace (string).
# Multiple values can be given, as a comma-separated list.
aggregate_image_properties_isolation_namespace = <None>

# Separator used between the namespace and keys (string).
aggregate_image_properties_isolation_separator = .

AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter

Matches properties defined in extra specs for an instance type against admin-defined properties on a host aggregate. Works with specifications that are scoped with aggregate_instance_extra_specs. Multiple values can be given, as a comma-separated list. For backward compatibility, also works with non-scoped specifications; this action is highly discouraged because it conflicts with ComputeCapabilitiesFilter filter when you enable both filters. For information about how to use this filter, see the Host aggregates and availability zones section.

AggregateIoOpsFilter

Filters host by disk allocation with a per-aggregate max_io_ops_per_host value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used. For information about how to use this filter, see Host aggregates and availability zones. See also IoOpsFilter.

AggregateMultiTenancyIsolation

Ensures hosts in tenant-isolated Host aggregates and availability zones will only be available to a specified set of tenants. If a host is in an aggregate that has the filter_tenant_id metadata key, the host can build instances from only that tenant or comma-separated list of tenants. A host can be in different aggregates. If a host does not belong to an aggregate with the metadata key, the host can build instances from all tenants. This does not restrict the tenant from creating servers on hosts outside the tenant-isolated aggregate.

For example, consider there are two available hosts for scheduling, HostA and HostB. HostB is in an aggregate isolated to tenant X. A server create request from tenant X will result in either HostA or HostB as candidates during scheduling. A server create request from another tenant Y will result in only HostA being a scheduling candidate since HostA is not part of the tenant-isolated aggregate.

Note

There is a known limitation with the number of tenants that can be isolated per aggregate using this filter. This limitation does not exist, however, for the Tenant Isolation with Placement filtering capability added in the 18.0.0 Rocky release.

AggregateNumInstancesFilter

Filters host by number of instances with a per-aggregate max_instances_per_host value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and thus more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used. For information about how to use this filter, see Host aggregates and availability zones. See also NumInstancesFilter.

AggregateRamFilter

Filters host by RAM allocation of instances with a per-aggregate ram_allocation_ratio value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and thus more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used. For information about how to use this filter, see Host aggregates and availability zones. See also RamFilter.

Note the ram_allocation_ratio bug 1804125 restriction.

AggregateTypeAffinityFilter

This filter passes hosts if no instance_type key is set or the instance_type aggregate metadata value contains the name of the instance_type requested. The value of the instance_type metadata entry is a string that may contain either a single instance_type name or a comma-separated list of instance_type names, such as m1.nano or m1.nano,m1.small. For information about how to use this filter, see Host aggregates and availability zones.

AllHostsFilter

This is a no-op filter. It does not eliminate any of the available hosts.

AvailabilityZoneFilter

Filters hosts by availability zone. You must enable this filter for the scheduler to respect availability zones in requests.

ComputeCapabilitiesFilter

Matches properties defined in extra specs for an instance type against compute capabilities. If an extra specs key contains a colon (:), anything before the colon is treated as a namespace and anything after the colon is treated as the key to be matched. If a namespace is present and is not capabilities, the filter ignores the namespace. For backward compatibility, also treats the extra specs key as the key to be matched if no namespace is present; this action is highly discouraged because it conflicts with AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter filter when you enable both filters.

Some virt drivers support reporting CPU traits to the Placement service. With that feature available, you should consider using traits in flavors instead of ComputeCapabilitiesFilter, because traits provide consistent naming for CPU features in some virt drivers and querying traits is efficient. For more detail, please see Support Matrix, Required traits, Forbidden traits and Report CPU features to the Placement service.

ComputeFilter

Passes all hosts that are operational and enabled.

In general, you should always enable this filter.

CoreFilter

Deprecated since version 19.0.0: CoreFilter is deprecated since the 19.0.0 Stein release. VCPU filtering is performed natively using the Placement service when using the filter_scheduler driver. Furthermore, enabling CoreFilter may incorrectly filter out baremetal nodes which must be scheduled using custom resource classes.

Only schedules instances on hosts if sufficient CPU cores are available. If this filter is not set, the scheduler might over-provision a host based on cores. For example, the virtual cores running on an instance may exceed the physical cores.

You can configure this filter to enable a fixed amount of vCPU overcommitment by using the cpu_allocation_ratio configuration option in nova.conf. The default setting is:

cpu_allocation_ratio = 16.0

With this setting, if 8 vCPUs are on a node, the scheduler allows instances up to 128 vCPU to be run on that node.

To disallow vCPU overcommitment set:

cpu_allocation_ratio = 1.0

Note

The Compute API always returns the actual number of CPU cores available on a compute node regardless of the value of the cpu_allocation_ratio configuration key. As a result changes to the cpu_allocation_ratio are not reflected via the command line clients or the dashboard. Changes to this configuration key are only taken into account internally in the scheduler.

DifferentHostFilter

Schedules the instance on a different host from a set of instances. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must pass a scheduler hint, using different_host as the key and a list of instance UUIDs as the value. This filter is the opposite of the SameHostFilter. Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag. For example:

$ openstack server create --image cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175 \
  --flavor 1 --hint different_host=a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1 \
  --hint different_host=8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287 server-1

With the API, use the os:scheduler_hints key. For example:

{
    "server": {
        "name": "server-1",
        "imageRef": "cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175",
        "flavorRef": "1"
    },
    "os:scheduler_hints": {
        "different_host": [
            "a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1",
            "8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287"
        ]
    }
}

DiskFilter

Deprecated since version 19.0.0: DiskFilter is deprecated since the 19.0.0 Stein release. DISK_GB filtering is performed natively using the Placement service when using the filter_scheduler driver. Furthermore, enabling DiskFilter may incorrectly filter out baremetal nodes which must be scheduled using custom resource classes.

Only schedules instances on hosts if there is sufficient disk space available for root and ephemeral storage.

You can configure this filter to enable a fixed amount of disk overcommitment by using the disk_allocation_ratio configuration option in the nova.conf configuration file. The default setting disables the possibility of the overcommitment and allows launching a VM only if there is a sufficient amount of disk space available on a host:

disk_allocation_ratio = 1.0

DiskFilter always considers the value of the disk_available_least property and not the one of the free_disk_gb property of a hypervisor’s statistics:

$ openstack hypervisor stats show
+----------------------+-------+
| Field                | Value |
+----------------------+-------+
| count                | 1     |
| current_workload     | 0     |
| disk_available_least | 14    |
| free_disk_gb         | 27    |
| free_ram_mb          | 15374 |
| local_gb             | 27    |
| local_gb_used        | 0     |
| memory_mb            | 15886 |
| memory_mb_used       | 512   |
| running_vms          | 0     |
| vcpus                | 8     |
| vcpus_used           | 0     |
+----------------------+-------+

As it can be viewed from the command output above, the amount of the available disk space can be less than the amount of the free disk space. It happens because the disk_available_least property accounts for the virtual size rather than the actual size of images. If you use an image format that is sparse or copy on write so that each virtual instance does not require a 1:1 allocation of a virtual disk to a physical storage, it may be useful to allow the overcommitment of disk space.

To enable scheduling instances while overcommitting disk resources on the node, adjust the value of the disk_allocation_ratio configuration option to greater than 1.0:

disk_allocation_ratio > 1.0

Note

If the value is set to >1, we recommend keeping track of the free disk space, as the value approaching 0 may result in the incorrect functioning of instances using it at the moment.

ImagePropertiesFilter

Filters hosts based on properties defined on the instance’s image. It passes hosts that can support the specified image properties contained in the instance. Properties include the architecture, hypervisor type, hypervisor version (for Xen hypervisor type only), and virtual machine mode.

For example, an instance might require a host that runs an ARM-based processor, and QEMU as the hypervisor. You can decorate an image with these properties by using:

$ openstack image set --architecture arm --property hypervisor_type=qemu \
  img-uuid

The image properties that the filter checks for are:

architecture
describes the machine architecture required by the image. Examples are i686, x86_64, arm, and ppc64.
hypervisor_type

describes the hypervisor required by the image. Examples are xen, qemu, and xenapi.

Note

qemu is used for both QEMU and KVM hypervisor types.

hypervisor_version_requires

describes the hypervisor version required by the image. The property is supported for Xen hypervisor type only. It can be used to enable support for multiple hypervisor versions, and to prevent instances with newer Xen tools from being provisioned on an older version of a hypervisor. If available, the property value is compared to the hypervisor version of the compute host.

To filter the hosts by the hypervisor version, add the hypervisor_version_requires property on the image as metadata and pass an operator and a required hypervisor version as its value:

$ openstack image set --property hypervisor_type=xen --property \
  hypervisor_version_requires=">=4.3" img-uuid
vm_mode
describes the hypervisor application binary interface (ABI) required by the image. Examples are xen for Xen 3.0 paravirtual ABI, hvm for native ABI, uml for User Mode Linux paravirtual ABI, exe for container virt executable ABI.

IsolatedHostsFilter

Allows the admin to define a special (isolated) set of images and a special (isolated) set of hosts, such that the isolated images can only run on the isolated hosts, and the isolated hosts can only run isolated images. The flag restrict_isolated_hosts_to_isolated_images can be used to force isolated hosts to only run isolated images.

The logic within the filter depends on the restrict_isolated_hosts_to_isolated_images config option, which defaults to True. When True, a volume-backed instance will not be put on an isolated host. When False, a volume-backed instance can go on any host, isolated or not.

The admin must specify the isolated set of images and hosts in the nova.conf file using the isolated_hosts and isolated_images configuration options. For example:

[filter_scheduler]
isolated_hosts = server1, server2
isolated_images = 342b492c-128f-4a42-8d3a-c5088cf27d13, ebd267a6-ca86-4d6c-9a0e-bd132d6b7d09

IoOpsFilter

The IoOpsFilter filters hosts by concurrent I/O operations on it. Hosts with too many concurrent I/O operations will be filtered out. The max_io_ops_per_host option specifies the maximum number of I/O intensive instances allowed to run on a host. A host will be ignored by the scheduler if more than max_io_ops_per_host instances in build, resize, snapshot, migrate, rescue or unshelve task states are running on it.

JsonFilter

The JsonFilter allows a user to construct a custom filter by passing a scheduler hint in JSON format. The following operators are supported:

  • =
  • <
  • >
  • in
  • <=
  • >=
  • not
  • or
  • and

The filter supports the following variables:

  • $free_ram_mb
  • $free_disk_mb
  • $total_usable_ram_mb
  • $vcpus_total
  • $vcpus_used

Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag:

$ openstack server create --image 827d564a-e636-4fc4-a376-d36f7ebe1747 \
  --flavor 1 --hint query='[">=","$free_ram_mb",1024]' server1

With the API, use the os:scheduler_hints key:

{
    "server": {
        "name": "server-1",
        "imageRef": "cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175",
        "flavorRef": "1"
    },
    "os:scheduler_hints": {
        "query": "[>=,$free_ram_mb,1024]"
    }
}

MetricsFilter

Filters hosts based on meters weight_setting. Only hosts with the available meters are passed so that the metrics weigher will not fail due to these hosts.

NUMATopologyFilter

Filters hosts based on the NUMA topology that was specified for the instance through the use of flavor extra_specs in combination with the image properties, as described in detail in the related nova-spec document. Filter will try to match the exact NUMA cells of the instance to those of the host. It will consider the standard over-subscription limits for each host NUMA cell, and provide limits to the compute host accordingly.

Note

If instance has no topology defined, it will be considered for any host. If instance has a topology defined, it will be considered only for NUMA capable hosts.

NumInstancesFilter

Hosts that have more instances running than specified by the max_instances_per_host option are filtered out when this filter is in place.

PciPassthroughFilter

The filter schedules instances on a host if the host has devices that meet the device requests in the extra_specs attribute for the flavor.

RamFilter

Deprecated since version 19.0.0: RamFilter is deprecated since the 19.0.0 Stein release. MEMORY_MB filtering is performed natively using the Placement service when using the filter_scheduler driver. Furthermore, enabling RamFilter may incorrectly filter out baremetal nodes which must be scheduled using custom resource classes.

Only schedules instances on hosts that have sufficient RAM available. If this filter is not set, the scheduler may over provision a host based on RAM (for example, the RAM allocated by virtual machine instances may exceed the physical RAM).

You can configure this filter to enable a fixed amount of RAM overcommitment by using the ram_allocation_ratio configuration option in nova.conf. The default setting is:

ram_allocation_ratio = 1.5

This setting enables 1.5 GB instances to run on any compute node with 1 GB of free RAM.

RetryFilter

Filters out hosts that have already been attempted for scheduling purposes. If the scheduler selects a host to respond to a service request, and the host fails to respond to the request, this filter prevents the scheduler from retrying that host for the service request.

This filter is only useful if the scheduler_max_attempts configuration option is set to a value greater than zero.

SameHostFilter

Schedules the instance on the same host as another instance in a set of instances. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must pass a scheduler hint, using same_host as the key and a list of instance UUIDs as the value. This filter is the opposite of the DifferentHostFilter. Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag:

$ openstack server create --image cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175 \
  --flavor 1 --hint same_host=a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1 \
  --hint same_host=8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287 server-1

With the API, use the os:scheduler_hints key:

{
    "server": {
        "name": "server-1",
        "imageRef": "cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175",
        "flavorRef": "1"
    },
    "os:scheduler_hints": {
        "same_host": [
            "a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1",
            "8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287"
        ]
    }
}

ServerGroupAffinityFilter

The ServerGroupAffinityFilter ensures that an instance is scheduled on to a host from a set of group hosts. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must create a server group with an affinity policy, and pass a scheduler hint, using group as the key and the server group UUID as the value. Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag. For example:

$ openstack server group create --policy affinity group-1
$ openstack server create --image IMAGE_ID --flavor 1 \
  --hint group=SERVER_GROUP_UUID server-1

ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter

The ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter ensures that each instance in a group is on a different host. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must create a server group with an anti-affinity policy, and pass a scheduler hint, using group as the key and the server group UUID as the value. Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag. For example:

$ openstack server group create --policy anti-affinity group-1
$ openstack server create --image IMAGE_ID --flavor 1 \
  --hint group=SERVER_GROUP_UUID server-1

SimpleCIDRAffinityFilter

Schedules the instance based on host IP subnet range. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must specify a range of valid IP address in CIDR format, by passing two scheduler hints:

build_near_host_ip
The first IP address in the subnet (for example, 192.168.1.1)
cidr
The CIDR that corresponds to the subnet (for example, /24)

Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag. For example, to specify the IP subnet 192.168.1.1/24:

$ openstack server create --image cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175 \
  --flavor 1 --hint build_near_host_ip=192.168.1.1 --hint cidr=/24 server-1

With the API, use the os:scheduler_hints key:

{
    "server": {
        "name": "server-1",
        "imageRef": "cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175",
        "flavorRef": "1"
    },
    "os:scheduler_hints": {
        "build_near_host_ip": "192.168.1.1",
        "cidr": "24"
    }
}

Cell filters

The following sections describe the available cell filters.

Note

These filters are only available for cellsv1 which is deprecated.

DifferentCellFilter

Schedules the instance on a different cell from a set of instances. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must pass a scheduler hint, using different_cell as the key and a list of instance UUIDs as the value.

ImagePropertiesFilter

Filters cells based on properties defined on the instance’s image. This filter works specifying the hypervisor required in the image metadata and the supported hypervisor version in cell capabilities.

TargetCellFilter

Filters target cells. This filter works by specifying a scheduler hint of target_cell. The value should be the full cell path.

Weights

When resourcing instances, the filter scheduler filters and weights each host in the list of acceptable hosts. Each time the scheduler selects a host, it virtually consumes resources on it, and subsequent selections are adjusted accordingly. This process is useful when the customer asks for the same large amount of instances, because weight is computed for each requested instance.

All weights are normalized before being summed up; the host with the largest weight is given the highest priority.

Weighting hosts

../../_images/nova-weighting-hosts.png

If cells are used, cells are weighted by the scheduler in the same manner as hosts.

Hosts and cells are weighted based on the following options in the /etc/nova/nova.conf file:

Host weighting options
Section Option Description
[DEFAULT] ram_weight_multiplier By default, the scheduler spreads instances across all hosts evenly. Set the ram_weight_multiplier option to a negative number if you prefer stacking instead of spreading. Use a floating-point value.
[DEFAULT] scheduler_host_subset_size New instances are scheduled on a host that is chosen randomly from a subset of the N best hosts. This property defines the subset size from which a host is chosen. A value of 1 chooses the first host returned by the weighting functions. This value must be at least 1. A value less than 1 is ignored, and 1 is used instead. Use an integer value.
[DEFAULT] scheduler_weight_classes Defaults to nova.scheduler.weights.all_weighers. Hosts are then weighted and sorted with the largest weight winning.
[DEFAULT] io_ops_weight_multiplier Multiplier used for weighing host I/O operations. A negative value means a preference to choose light workload compute hosts.
[DEFAULT] soft_affinity_weight_multiplier Multiplier used for weighing hosts for group soft-affinity. Only a positive value is meaningful. Negative means that the behavior will change to the opposite, which is soft-anti-affinity.
[DEFAULT] soft_anti_affinity_weight_multiplier Multiplier used for weighing hosts for group soft-anti-affinity. Only a positive value is meaningful. Negative means that the behavior will change to the opposite, which is soft-affinity.
[filter_scheduler] build_failure_weight_multiplier Multiplier used for weighing hosts which have recent build failures. A positive value increases the significance of build failures reported by the host recently, making them less likely to be chosen.
[metrics] weight_multiplier Multiplier for weighting meters. Use a floating-point value.
[metrics] weight_setting Determines how meters are weighted. Use a comma-separated list of metricName=ratio. For example: name1=1.0, name2=-1.0 results in: name1.value * 1.0 + name2.value * -1.0
[metrics] required

Specifies how to treat unavailable meters:

  • True - Raises an exception. To avoid the raised exception, you should use the scheduler filter MetricFilter to filter out hosts with unavailable meters.
  • False - Treated as a negative factor in the weighting process (uses the weight_of_unavailable option).
[metrics] weight_of_unavailable If required is set to False, and any one of the meters set by weight_setting is unavailable, the weight_of_unavailable value is returned to the scheduler.

For example:

[DEFAULT]
scheduler_host_subset_size = 1
scheduler_weight_classes = nova.scheduler.weights.all_weighers
ram_weight_multiplier = 1.0
io_ops_weight_multiplier = 2.0
soft_affinity_weight_multiplier = 1.0
soft_anti_affinity_weight_multiplier = 1.0
[metrics]
weight_multiplier = 1.0
weight_setting = name1=1.0, name2=-1.0
required = false
weight_of_unavailable = -10000.0
Cell weighting options
Section Option Description
[cells] mute_weight_multiplier Multiplier to weight mute children (hosts which have not sent capacity or capacity updates for some time). Use a negative, floating-point value.
[cells] offset_weight_multiplier Multiplier to weight cells, so you can specify a preferred cell. Use a floating point value.
[cells] ram_weight_multiplier By default, the scheduler spreads instances across all cells evenly. Set the ram_weight_multiplier option to a negative number if you prefer stacking instead of spreading. Use a floating-point value.
[cells] scheduler_weight_classes Defaults to nova.cells.weights.all_weighers, which maps to all cell weighers included with Compute. Cells are then weighted and sorted with the largest weight winning.

For example:

[cells]
scheduler_weight_classes = nova.cells.weights.all_weighers
mute_weight_multiplier = -10.0
ram_weight_multiplier = 1.0
offset_weight_multiplier = 1.0

Utilization aware scheduling

It is possible to schedule VMs using advanced scheduling decisions. These decisions are made based on enhanced usage statistics encompassing data like memory cache utilization, memory bandwidth utilization, or network bandwidth utilization. This is disabled by default. The administrator can configure how the metrics are weighted in the configuration file by using the weight_setting configuration option in the nova.conf configuration file. For example to configure metric1 with ratio1 and metric2 with ratio2:

weight_setting = "metric1=ratio1, metric2=ratio2"

Host aggregates and availability zones

Host aggregates are a mechanism for partitioning hosts in an OpenStack cloud, or a region of an OpenStack cloud, based on arbitrary characteristics. Examples where an administrator may want to do this include where a group of hosts have additional hardware or performance characteristics.

Host aggregates are not explicitly exposed to users. Instead administrators map flavors to host aggregates. Administrators do this by setting metadata on a host aggregate, and matching flavor extra specifications. The scheduler then endeavors to match user requests for instance of the given flavor to a host aggregate with the same key-value pair in its metadata. Compute nodes can be in more than one host aggregate.

Administrators are able to optionally expose a host aggregate as an availability zone. Availability zones are different from host aggregates in that they are explicitly exposed to the user, and hosts can only be in a single availability zone. Administrators can configure a default availability zone where instances will be scheduled when the user fails to specify one.

Command-line interface

The nova command-line client supports the following aggregate-related commands.

nova aggregate-list
Print a list of all aggregates.
nova aggregate-create <name> [<availability-zone>]
Create a new aggregate named <name>, and optionally in availability zone [<availability-zone>] if specified. The command returns the ID of the newly created aggregate. Hosts can be made available to multiple host aggregates. Be careful when adding a host to an additional host aggregate when the host is also in an availability zone. Pay attention when using the nova aggregate-set-metadata and nova aggregate-update commands to avoid user confusion when they boot instances in different availability zones. An error occurs if you cannot add a particular host to an aggregate zone for which it is not intended.
nova aggregate-delete <aggregate>
Delete an aggregate with its <id> or <name>.
nova aggregate-show <aggregate>
Show details of the aggregate with its <id> or <name>.
nova aggregate-add-host <aggregate> <host>
Add host with name <host> to aggregate with its <id> or <name>.
nova aggregate-remove-host <aggregate> <host>
Remove the host with name <host> from the aggregate with its <id> or <name>.
nova aggregate-set-metadata <aggregate> <key=value> [<key=value> …]
Add or update metadata (key-value pairs) associated with the aggregate with its <id> or <name>.
nova aggregate-update [–name <name>] [–availability-zone <availability-zone>] <aggregate>
Update the name and/or availability zone for the aggregate.
nova host-list
List all hosts by service. It has been deprecated since microversion 2.43. Use nova hypervisor-list instead.
nova hypervisor-list [–matching <hostname>] [–marker <marker>] [–limit <limit>]
List hypervisors.
nova host-update [–status <enable|disable>] [–maintenance <enable|disable>] <hostname>
Put/resume host into/from maintenance. It has been deprecated since microversion 2.43. To enable or disable a service, use nova service-enable or nova service-disable instead.
nova service-enable <id>
Enable the service.
nova service-disable [–reason <reason>] <id>
Disable the service.

Note

Only administrators can access these commands. If you try to use these commands and the user name and tenant that you use to access the Compute service do not have the admin role or the appropriate privileges, these errors occur:

ERROR: Policy doesn't allow compute_extension:aggregates to be performed. (HTTP 403) (Request-ID: req-299fbff6-6729-4cef-93b2-e7e1f96b4864)
ERROR: Policy doesn't allow compute_extension:hosts to be performed. (HTTP 403) (Request-ID: req-ef2400f6-6776-4ea3-b6f1-7704085c27d1)

Configure scheduler to support host aggregates

One common use case for host aggregates is when you want to support scheduling instances to a subset of compute hosts because they have a specific capability. For example, you may want to allow users to request compute hosts that have SSD drives if they need access to faster disk I/O, or access to compute hosts that have GPU cards to take advantage of GPU-accelerated code.

To configure the scheduler to support host aggregates, the filter_scheduler.enabled_filters configuration option must contain the AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter in addition to the other filters used by the scheduler. Add the following line to /etc/nova/nova.conf on the host that runs the nova-scheduler service to enable host aggregates filtering, as well as the other filters that are typically enabled:

[filter_scheduler]
enabled_filters=AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter,RetryFilter,AvailabilityZoneFilter,ComputeCapabilitiesFilter,ImagePropertiesFilter,ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter,ServerGroupAffinityFilter

Example: Specify compute hosts with SSDs

This example configures the Compute service to enable users to request nodes that have solid-state drives (SSDs). You create a fast-io host aggregate in the nova availability zone and you add the ssd=true key-value pair to the aggregate. Then, you add the node1, and node2 compute nodes to it.

$ openstack aggregate create --zone nova fast-io
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| Field             | Value                      |
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| availability_zone | nova                       |
| created_at        | 2016-12-22T07:31:13.013466 |
| deleted           | False                      |
| deleted_at        | None                       |
| id                | 1                          |
| name              | fast-io                    |
| updated_at        | None                       |
+-------------------+----------------------------+

$ openstack aggregate set --property ssd=true 1
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| Field             | Value                      |
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| availability_zone | nova                       |
| created_at        | 2016-12-22T07:31:13.000000 |
| deleted           | False                      |
| deleted_at        | None                       |
| hosts             | []                         |
| id                | 1                          |
| name              | fast-io                    |
| properties        | ssd='true'                 |
| updated_at        | None                       |
+-------------------+----------------------------+

$ openstack aggregate add host 1 node1
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                            |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | nova                                             |
| created_at        | 2016-12-22T07:31:13.000000                       |
| deleted           | False                                            |
| deleted_at        | None                                             |
| hosts             | [u'node1']                                       |
| id                | 1                                                |
| metadata          | {u'ssd': u'true', u'availability_zone': u'nova'} |
| name              | fast-io                                          |
| updated_at        | None                                             |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+

$ openstack aggregate add host 1 node2
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                            |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | nova                                             |
| created_at        | 2016-12-22T07:31:13.000000                       |
| deleted           | False                                            |
| deleted_at        | None                                             |
| hosts             | [u'node1', u'node2']                             |
| id                | 1                                                |
| metadata          | {u'ssd': u'true', u'availability_zone': u'nova'} |
| name              | fast-io                                          |
| updated_at        | None                                             |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+

Use the openstack flavor create command to create the ssd.large flavor called with an ID of 6, 8 GB of RAM, 80 GB root disk, and 4 vCPUs.

$ openstack flavor create --id 6 --ram 8192 --disk 80 --vcpus 4 ssd.large
+----------------------------+-----------+
| Field                      | Value     |
+----------------------------+-----------+
| OS-FLV-DISABLED:disabled   | False     |
| OS-FLV-EXT-DATA:ephemeral  | 0         |
| disk                       | 80        |
| id                         | 6         |
| name                       | ssd.large |
| os-flavor-access:is_public | True      |
| ram                        | 8192      |
| rxtx_factor                | 1.0       |
| swap                       |           |
| vcpus                      | 4         |
+----------------------------+-----------+

Once the flavor is created, specify one or more key-value pairs that match the key-value pairs on the host aggregates with scope aggregate_instance_extra_specs. In this case, that is the aggregate_instance_extra_specs:ssd=true key-value pair. Setting a key-value pair on a flavor is done using the openstack flavor set command.

$ openstack flavor set --property aggregate_instance_extra_specs:ssd=true ssd.large

Once it is set, you should see the extra_specs property of the ssd.large flavor populated with a key of ssd and a corresponding value of true.

$ openstack flavor show ssd.large
+----------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Field                      | Value                                     |
+----------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| OS-FLV-DISABLED:disabled   | False                                     |
| OS-FLV-EXT-DATA:ephemeral  | 0                                         |
| disk                       | 80                                        |
| id                         | 6                                         |
| name                       | ssd.large                                 |
| os-flavor-access:is_public | True                                      |
| properties                 | aggregate_instance_extra_specs:ssd='true' |
| ram                        | 8192                                      |
| rxtx_factor                | 1.0                                       |
| swap                       |                                           |
| vcpus                      | 4                                         |
+----------------------------+-------------------------------------------+

Now, when a user requests an instance with the ssd.large flavor, the scheduler only considers hosts with the ssd=true key-value pair. In this example, these are node1 and node2.

Aggregates in Placement

Aggregates also exist in placement and are not the same thing as host aggregates in nova. These aggregates are defined (purely) as groupings of related resource providers. Since compute nodes in nova are represented in placement as resource providers, they can be added to a placement aggregate as well. For example, get the uuid of the compute node using openstack hypervisor list and add it to an aggregate in placement using openstack placement aggregate set.

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version=2.53 hypervisor list
+--------------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-------+
| ID                                   | Hypervisor Hostname | Hypervisor Type | Host IP         | State |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-------+
| 815a5634-86fb-4e1e-8824-8a631fee3e06 | node1               | QEMU            | 192.168.1.123   | up    |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-------+

$ openstack --os-placement-api-version=1.2 resource provider aggregate set --aggregate df4c74f3-d2c4-4991-b461-f1a678e1d161 815a5634-86fb-4e1e-8824-8a631fee3e06

Some scheduling filter operations can be performed by placement for increased speed and efficiency.

Note

The nova-api service attempts (as of nova 18.0.0) to automatically mirror the association of a compute host with an aggregate when an administrator adds or removes a host to/from a nova host aggregate. This should alleviate the need to manually create those association records in the placement API using the openstack resource provider aggregate set CLI invocation.

Tenant Isolation with Placement

In order to use placement to isolate tenants, there must be placement aggregates that match the membership and UUID of nova host aggregates that you want to use for isolation. The same key pattern in aggregate metadata used by the AggregateMultiTenancyIsolation filter controls this function, and is enabled by setting [scheduler]/limit_tenants_to_placement_aggregate=True.

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version=2.53 aggregate create myagg
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | None                                 |
| created_at        | 2018-03-29T16:22:23.175884           |
| deleted           | False                                |
| deleted_at        | None                                 |
| id                | 4                                    |
| name              | myagg                                |
| updated_at        | None                                 |
| uuid              | 019e2189-31b3-49e1-aff2-b220ebd91c24 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version=2.53 aggregate add host myagg node1
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | None                                 |
| created_at        | 2018-03-29T16:22:23.175884           |
| deleted           | False                                |
| deleted_at        | None                                 |
| hosts             | [u'node1']                           |
| id                | 4                                    |
| name              | myagg                                |
| updated_at        | None                                 |
| uuid              | 019e2189-31b3-49e1-aff2-b220ebd91c24 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

$ openstack project list -f value | grep 'demo'
9691591f913949818a514f95286a6b90 demo

$ openstack aggregate set --property filter_tenant_id=9691591f913949818a514f95286a6b90 myagg

$ openstack --os-placement-api-version=1.2 resource provider aggregate set --aggregate 019e2189-31b3-49e1-aff2-b220ebd91c24 815a5634-86fb-4e1e-8824-8a631fee3e06

Note that the filter_tenant_id metadata key can be optionally suffixed with any string for multiple tenants, such as filter_tenant_id3=$tenantid.

Availability Zones with Placement

In order to use placement to honor availability zone requests, there must be placement aggregates that match the membership and UUID of nova host aggregates that you assign as availability zones. The same key in aggregate metadata used by the AvailabilityZoneFilter filter controls this function, and is enabled by setting [scheduler]/query_placement_for_availability_zone=True.

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version=2.53 aggregate create myaz
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | None                                 |
| created_at        | 2018-03-29T16:22:23.175884           |
| deleted           | False                                |
| deleted_at        | None                                 |
| id                | 4                                    |
| name              | myaz                                 |
| updated_at        | None                                 |
| uuid              | 019e2189-31b3-49e1-aff2-b220ebd91c24 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version=2.53 aggregate add host myaz node1
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| availability_zone | None                                 |
| created_at        | 2018-03-29T16:22:23.175884           |
| deleted           | False                                |
| deleted_at        | None                                 |
| hosts             | [u'node1']                           |
| id                | 4                                    |
| name              | myagg                                |
| updated_at        | None                                 |
| uuid              | 019e2189-31b3-49e1-aff2-b220ebd91c24 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

$ openstack aggregate set --property availability_zone=az002 myaz

$ openstack --os-placement-api-version=1.2 resource provider aggregate set --aggregate 019e2189-31b3-49e1-aff2-b220ebd91c24 815a5634-86fb-4e1e-8824-8a631fee3e06

With the above configuration, the AvailabilityZoneFilter filter can be disabled in [filter_scheduler]/enabled_filters while retaining proper behavior (and doing so with the higher performance of placement’s implementation).

XenServer hypervisor pools to support live migration

When using the XenAPI-based hypervisor, the Compute service uses host aggregates to manage XenServer Resource pools, which are used in supporting live migration.

Allocation ratios

The following configuration options exist to control allocation ratios per compute node to support over-commit of resources:

Prior to the 19.0.0 Stein release, if left unset, the cpu_allocation_ratio defaults to 16.0, the ram_allocation_ratio defaults to 1.5, and the disk_allocation_ratio defaults to 1.0.

Starting with the 19.0.0 Stein release, the following configuration options control the initial allocation ratio values for a compute node:

Scheduling considerations

The allocation ratio configuration is used both during reporting of compute node resource provider inventory to the placement service and during scheduling.

The (deprecated) CoreFilter, DiskFilter and RamFilter filters will use the allocation ratio from the compute node directly when calculating available capacity on a given node during scheduling.

The AggregateCoreFilter, AggregateDiskFilter and AggregateRamFilter filters allow overriding per-compute allocation ratios by setting an allocation ratio value using host aggregate metadata. This provides a convenient way to manage a group of compute hosts with similar allocation ratios while leaving the configuration settings alone.

Note

Regarding the AggregateCoreFilter, AggregateDiskFilter and AggregateRamFilter, starting in 15.0.0 (Ocata) there is a behavior change where aggregate-based overcommit ratios will no longer be honored during scheduling for the FilterScheduler. Instead, overcommit values must be set on a per-compute-node basis in the Nova configuration files.

If you have been relying on per-aggregate overcommit, during your upgrade, you must change to using per-compute-node overcommit ratios in order for your scheduling behavior to stay consistent. Otherwise, you may notice increased NoValidHost scheduling failures as the aggregate-based overcommit is no longer being considered.

See bug 1804125 for more details.

Usage scenarios

Since allocation ratios can be set via nova configuration, host aggregate metadata and the placement API, it can be confusing to know which should be used. This really depends on your scenario. A few common scenarios are detailed here.

  1. When the deployer wants to always set an override value for a resource on a compute node, the deployer would ensure that the [DEFAULT]/cpu_allocation_ratio, [DEFAULT]/ram_allocation_ratio and [DEFAULT]/disk_allocation_ratio configuration options are set to a non-None value (or greater than 0.0 before the 19.0.0 Stein release). This will make the nova-compute service overwrite any externally-set allocation ratio values set via the placement REST API.

  2. When the deployer wants to set an initial value for a compute node allocation ratio but wants to allow an admin to adjust this afterwards without making any configuration file changes, the deployer would set the [DEFAULT]/initial_cpu_allocation_ratio, [DEFAULT]/initial_ram_allocation_ratio and [DEFAULT]/initial_disk_allocation_ratio configuration options and then manage the allocation ratios using the placement REST API (or osc-placement command line interface). For example:

    $ openstack resource provider inventory set --resource VCPU:allocation_ratio=1.0 815a5634-86fb-4e1e-8824-8a631fee3e06
    

    Note the bug 1804125 restriction.

  3. When the deployer wants to always use the placement API to set allocation ratios, then the deployer should ensure that [DEFAULT]/xxx_allocation_ratio options are all set to None (the default since 19.0.0 Stein, 0.0 before Stein) and then manage the allocation ratios using the placement REST API (or osc-placement command line interface).

    This scenario is the workaround for bug 1804125.

Cells considerations

By default cells are enabled for scheduling new instances but they can be disabled (new schedulings to the cell are blocked). This may be useful for users while performing cell maintenance, failures or other interventions. It is to be noted that creating pre-disabled cells and enabling/disabling existing cells should either be followed by a restart or SIGHUP of the nova-scheduler service for the changes to take effect.

Command-line interface

The nova-manage command-line client supports the cell-disable related commands. To enable or disable a cell, use nova-manage cell_v2 update_cell and to create pre-disabled cells, use nova-manage cell_v2 create_cell. See the Nova Cells v2 man page for details on command usage.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

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