Compute schedulers

Compute uses the nova-scheduler service to determine how to dispatch compute requests. For example, the nova-scheduler service determines on which host a VM should launch. In the context of filters, the term host means a physical node that has a nova-compute service running on it. You can configure the scheduler through a variety of options.

Compute is configured with the following default scheduler options in the /etc/nova/nova.conf file:

[scheduler]
driver = filter_scheduler

[filter_scheduler]
available_filters = nova.scheduler.filters.all_filters
enabled_filters = AvailabilityZoneFilter, ComputeFilter, ComputeCapabilitiesFilter, ImagePropertiesFilter, ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter, ServerGroupAffinityFilter

By default, the scheduler driver is configured as a filter scheduler, as described in the next section. In the default configuration, this scheduler considers hosts that meet all the following criteria:

  • Are in the requested availability zone (AvailabilityZoneFilter).

  • Can service the request (ComputeFilter).

  • Satisfy the extra specs associated with the instance type (ComputeCapabilitiesFilter).

  • Satisfy any architecture, hypervisor type, or virtual machine mode properties specified on the instance’s image properties (ImagePropertiesFilter).

  • Are on a different host than other instances of a group (if requested) (ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter).

  • Are in a set of group hosts (if requested) (ServerGroupAffinityFilter).

The scheduler chooses a new host when an instance is migrated.

When evacuating instances from a host, the scheduler service honors the target host defined by the administrator on the nova evacuate command. If a target is not defined by the administrator, the scheduler determines the target host. For information about instance evacuation, see Evacuate instances.

Prefiltering

As of the Rocky release, the scheduling process includes a prefilter step to increase the efficiency of subsequent stages. These prefilters are largely optional, and serve to augment the request that is sent to placement to reduce the set of candidate compute hosts based on attributes that placement is able to answer for us ahead of time. In addition to the prefilters listed here, also see Tenant Isolation with Placement and Availability Zones with Placement.

Compute Image Type Support

Starting in the Train release, there is a prefilter available for excluding compute nodes that do not support the disk_format of the image used in a boot request. This behavior is enabled by setting [scheduler]/query_placement_for_image_type_support=True. For example, the libvirt driver, when using ceph as an ephemeral backend, does not support qcow2 images (without an expensive conversion step). In this case (and especially if you have a mix of ceph and non-ceph backed computes), enabling this feature will ensure that the scheduler does not send requests to boot a qcow2 image to computes backed by ceph.

Compute Disabled Status Support

Starting in the Train release, there is a mandatory pre-filter which will exclude disabled compute nodes similar to (but does not fully replace) the ComputeFilter. Compute node resource providers with the COMPUTE_STATUS_DISABLED trait will be excluded as scheduling candidates. The trait is managed by the nova-compute service and should mirror the disabled status on the related compute service record in the os-services API. For example, if a compute service’s status is disabled, the related compute node resource provider(s) for that service should have the COMPUTE_STATUS_DISABLED trait. When the service status is enabled the COMPUTE_STATUS_DISABLED trait shall be removed.

If the compute service is down when the status is changed, the trait will be synchronized by the compute service when it is restarted. Similarly, if an error occurs when trying to add or remove the trait on a given resource provider, the trait will be synchronized when the update_available_resource periodic task runs - which is controlled by the update_resources_interval configuration option.

Isolate Aggregates

Starting in the Train release, there is an optional placement pre-request filter Filtering hosts by isolating aggregates When enabled, the traits required in the server’s flavor and image must be at least those required in an aggregate’s metadata in order for the server to be eligible to boot on hosts in that aggregate.

Filter scheduler

The filter scheduler (nova.scheduler.filter_scheduler.FilterScheduler) is the default scheduler for scheduling virtual machine instances. It supports filtering and weighting to make informed decisions on where a new instance should be created.

When the filter scheduler receives a request for a resource, it first applies filters to determine which hosts are eligible for consideration when dispatching a resource. Filters are binary: either a host is accepted by the filter, or it is rejected. Hosts that are accepted by the filter are then processed by a different algorithm to decide which hosts to use for that request, described in the Weights section.

Filtering

../../_images/filtering-workflow-1.png

The available_filters configuration option in nova.conf provides the Compute service with the list of the filters that are available for use by the scheduler. The default setting specifies all of the filters that are included with the Compute service:

[filter_scheduler]
available_filters = nova.scheduler.filters.all_filters

This configuration option can be specified multiple times. For example, if you implemented your own custom filter in Python called myfilter.MyFilter and you wanted to use both the built-in filters and your custom filter, your nova.conf file would contain:

[filter_scheduler]
available_filters = nova.scheduler.filters.all_filters
available_filters = myfilter.MyFilter

The filter_scheduler.enabled_filters configuration option in nova.conf defines the list of filters that are applied by the nova-scheduler service.

Compute filters

The following sections describe the available compute filters.

AggregateCoreFilter

Deprecated since version 20.0.0: AggregateCoreFilter is deprecated since the 20.0.0 Train release. As of the introduction of the placement service in Ocata, the behavior of this filter has changed and no longer should be used. In the 18.0.0 Rocky release nova automatically mirrors host aggregates to placement aggregates. In the 19.0.0 Stein release initial allocation ratios support was added which allows management of the allocation ratios via the placement API in addition to the existing capability to manage allocation ratios via the nova config. See Allocation ratios for details.

Filters host by CPU core count with a per-aggregate cpu_allocation_ratio value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used.

Refer to Host aggregates for more information.

Important

Note the cpu_allocation_ratio bug 1804125 restriction.

AggregateDiskFilter

Deprecated since version 20.0.0: AggregateDiskFilter is deprecated since the 20.0.0 Train release. As of the introduction of the placement service in Ocata, the behavior of this filter has changed and no longer should be used. In the 18.0.0 Rocky release nova automatically mirrors host aggregates to placement aggregates. In the 19.0.0 Stein release initial allocation ratios support was added which allows management of the allocation ratios via the placement API in addition to the existing capability to manage allocation ratios via the nova config. See Allocation ratios for details.

Filters host by disk allocation with a per-aggregate disk_allocation_ratio value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used.

Refer to Host aggregates for more information.

Important

Note the disk_allocation_ratio bug 1804125 restriction.

AggregateImagePropertiesIsolation

Matches properties defined in an image’s metadata against those of aggregates to determine host matches:

  • If a host belongs to an aggregate and the aggregate defines one or more metadata that matches an image’s properties, that host is a candidate to boot the image’s instance.

  • If a host does not belong to any aggregate, it can boot instances from all images.

For example, the following aggregate myWinAgg has the Windows operating system as metadata (named ‘windows’):

$ openstack aggregate show myWinAgg
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| Field             | Value                      |
+-------------------+----------------------------+
| availability_zone | zone1                      |
| created_at        | 2017-01-01T15:36:44.000000 |
| deleted           | False                      |
| deleted_at        | None                       |
| hosts             | [u'sf-devel']              |
| id                | 1                          |
| name              | myWinAgg                   |
| properties        | os_distro='windows'        |
| updated_at        | None                       |
+-------------------+----------------------------+

In this example, because the following Win-2012 image has the windows property, it boots on the sf-devel host (all other filters being equal):

$ openstack image show Win-2012
+------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| Field            | Value                                                |
+------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| checksum         | ee1eca47dc88f4879d8a229cc70a07c6                     |
| container_format | bare                                                 |
| created_at       | 2016-12-13T09:30:30Z                                 |
| disk_format      | qcow2                                                |
| ...                                                                     |
| name             | Win-2012                                             |
| ...                                                                     |
| properties       | os_distro='windows'                                  |
| ...                                                                     |

You can configure the AggregateImagePropertiesIsolation filter by using the following options in the nova.conf file:

[scheduler]
# Considers only keys matching the given namespace (string).
# Multiple values can be given, as a comma-separated list.
aggregate_image_properties_isolation_namespace = <None>

# Separator used between the namespace and keys (string).
aggregate_image_properties_isolation_separator = .

Note

This filter has limitations as described in bug 1677217 which are addressed in placement Filtering hosts by isolating aggregates request filter.

Refer to Host aggregates for more information.

AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter

Matches properties defined in extra specs for an instance type against admin-defined properties on a host aggregate. Works with specifications that are scoped with aggregate_instance_extra_specs. Multiple values can be given, as a comma-separated list. For backward compatibility, also works with non-scoped specifications; this action is highly discouraged because it conflicts with ComputeCapabilitiesFilter filter when you enable both filters.

Refer to Host aggregates for more information.

AggregateIoOpsFilter

Filters host by disk allocation with a per-aggregate max_io_ops_per_host value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used.

Refer to Host aggregates and IoOpsFilter for more information.

AggregateMultiTenancyIsolation

Ensures hosts in tenant-isolated host aggregates will only be available to a specified set of tenants. If a host is in an aggregate that has the filter_tenant_id metadata key, the host can build instances from only that tenant or comma-separated list of tenants. A host can be in different aggregates. If a host does not belong to an aggregate with the metadata key, the host can build instances from all tenants. This does not restrict the tenant from creating servers on hosts outside the tenant-isolated aggregate.

For example, consider there are two available hosts for scheduling, HostA and HostB. HostB is in an aggregate isolated to tenant X. A server create request from tenant X will result in either HostA or HostB as candidates during scheduling. A server create request from another tenant Y will result in only HostA being a scheduling candidate since HostA is not part of the tenant-isolated aggregate.

Note

There is a known limitation with the number of tenants that can be isolated per aggregate using this filter. This limitation does not exist, however, for the Tenant Isolation with Placement filtering capability added in the 18.0.0 Rocky release.

AggregateNumInstancesFilter

Filters host by number of instances with a per-aggregate max_instances_per_host value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and thus more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used.

Refer to Host aggregates and NumInstancesFilter for more information.

AggregateRamFilter

Deprecated since version 20.0.0: AggregateRamFilter is deprecated since the 20.0.0 Train release. As of the introduction of the placement service in Ocata, the behavior of this filter has changed and no longer should be used. In the 18.0.0 Rocky release nova automatically mirrors host aggregates to placement aggregates. In the 19.0.0 Stein release initial allocation ratios support was added which allows management of the allocation ratios via the placement API in addition to the existing capability to manage allocation ratios via the nova config. See Allocation ratios for details.

Filters host by RAM allocation of instances with a per-aggregate ram_allocation_ratio value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and thus more than one value is found, the minimum value will be used.

Refer to Host aggregates for more information.

Important

Note the ram_allocation_ratio bug 1804125 restriction.

AggregateTypeAffinityFilter

This filter passes hosts if no instance_type key is set or the instance_type aggregate metadata value contains the name of the instance_type requested. The value of the instance_type metadata entry is a string that may contain either a single instance_type name or a comma-separated list of instance_type names, such as m1.nano or m1.nano,m1.small.

Refer to Host aggregates for more information.

AllHostsFilter

This is a no-op filter. It does not eliminate any of the available hosts.

AvailabilityZoneFilter

Filters hosts by availability zone. You must enable this filter for the scheduler to respect availability zones in requests.

Refer to Availability Zones for more information.

ComputeCapabilitiesFilter

Matches properties defined in extra specs for an instance type against compute capabilities. If an extra specs key contains a colon (:), anything before the colon is treated as a namespace and anything after the colon is treated as the key to be matched. If a namespace is present and is not capabilities, the filter ignores the namespace. For backward compatibility, also treats the extra specs key as the key to be matched if no namespace is present; this action is highly discouraged because it conflicts with AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter filter when you enable both filters.

Some virt drivers support reporting CPU traits to the Placement service. With that feature available, you should consider using traits in flavors instead of ComputeCapabilitiesFilter, because traits provide consistent naming for CPU features in some virt drivers and querying traits is efficient. For more detail, please see Support Matrix, Required traits, Forbidden traits and Report CPU features to the Placement service.

Also refer to Compute capabilities as traits.

ComputeFilter

Passes all hosts that are operational and enabled.

In general, you should always enable this filter.

DifferentHostFilter

Schedules the instance on a different host from a set of instances. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must pass a scheduler hint, using different_host as the key and a list of instance UUIDs as the value. This filter is the opposite of the SameHostFilter. Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag. For example:

$ openstack server create --image cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175 \
  --flavor 1 --hint different_host=a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1 \
  --hint different_host=8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287 server-1

With the API, use the os:scheduler_hints key. For example:

{
    "server": {
        "name": "server-1",
        "imageRef": "cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175",
        "flavorRef": "1"
    },
    "os:scheduler_hints": {
        "different_host": [
            "a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1",
            "8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287"
        ]
    }
}

ImagePropertiesFilter

Filters hosts based on properties defined on the instance’s image. It passes hosts that can support the specified image properties contained in the instance. Properties include the architecture, hypervisor type, hypervisor version (for Xen hypervisor type only), and virtual machine mode.

For example, an instance might require a host that runs an ARM-based processor, and QEMU as the hypervisor. You can decorate an image with these properties by using:

$ openstack image set --architecture arm --property hypervisor_type=qemu \
  img-uuid

The image properties that the filter checks for are:

architecture

describes the machine architecture required by the image. Examples are i686, x86_64, arm, and ppc64.

hypervisor_type

describes the hypervisor required by the image. Examples are xen, qemu, and xenapi.

Note

qemu is used for both QEMU and KVM hypervisor types.

hypervisor_version_requires

describes the hypervisor version required by the image. The property is supported for Xen hypervisor type only. It can be used to enable support for multiple hypervisor versions, and to prevent instances with newer Xen tools from being provisioned on an older version of a hypervisor. If available, the property value is compared to the hypervisor version of the compute host.

To filter the hosts by the hypervisor version, add the hypervisor_version_requires property on the image as metadata and pass an operator and a required hypervisor version as its value:

$ openstack image set --property hypervisor_type=xen --property \
  hypervisor_version_requires=">=4.3" img-uuid
vm_mode

describes the hypervisor application binary interface (ABI) required by the image. Examples are xen for Xen 3.0 paravirtual ABI, hvm for native ABI, uml for User Mode Linux paravirtual ABI, exe for container virt executable ABI.

IsolatedHostsFilter

Allows the admin to define a special (isolated) set of images and a special (isolated) set of hosts, such that the isolated images can only run on the isolated hosts, and the isolated hosts can only run isolated images. The flag restrict_isolated_hosts_to_isolated_images can be used to force isolated hosts to only run isolated images.

The logic within the filter depends on the restrict_isolated_hosts_to_isolated_images config option, which defaults to True. When True, a volume-backed instance will not be put on an isolated host. When False, a volume-backed instance can go on any host, isolated or not.

The admin must specify the isolated set of images and hosts in the nova.conf file using the isolated_hosts and isolated_images configuration options. For example:

[filter_scheduler]
isolated_hosts = server1, server2
isolated_images = 342b492c-128f-4a42-8d3a-c5088cf27d13, ebd267a6-ca86-4d6c-9a0e-bd132d6b7d09

IoOpsFilter

The IoOpsFilter filters hosts by concurrent I/O operations on it. Hosts with too many concurrent I/O operations will be filtered out. The max_io_ops_per_host option specifies the maximum number of I/O intensive instances allowed to run on a host. A host will be ignored by the scheduler if more than max_io_ops_per_host instances in build, resize, snapshot, migrate, rescue or unshelve task states are running on it.

JsonFilter

Warning

This filter is not enabled by default and not comprehensively tested, and thus could fail to work as expected in non-obvious ways. Furthermore, the filter variables are based on attributes of the HostState class which could change from release to release so usage of this filter is generally not recommended. Consider using other filters such as the ImagePropertiesFilter or traits-based scheduling.

The JsonFilter allows a user to construct a custom filter by passing a scheduler hint in JSON format. The following operators are supported:

  • =

  • <

  • >

  • in

  • <=

  • >=

  • not

  • or

  • and

The filter supports any attribute in the HostState class such as the following variables:

  • $free_ram_mb

  • $free_disk_mb

  • $hypervisor_hostname

  • $total_usable_ram_mb

  • $vcpus_total

  • $vcpus_used

Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag:

$ openstack server create --image 827d564a-e636-4fc4-a376-d36f7ebe1747 \
  --flavor 1 --hint query='[">=","$free_ram_mb",1024]' server1

With the API, use the os:scheduler_hints key:

{
    "server": {
        "name": "server-1",
        "imageRef": "cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175",
        "flavorRef": "1"
    },
    "os:scheduler_hints": {
        "query": "[\">=\",\"$free_ram_mb\",1024]"
    }
}

MetricsFilter

Filters hosts based on meters weight_setting. Only hosts with the available meters are passed so that the metrics weigher will not fail due to these hosts.

NUMATopologyFilter

Filters hosts based on the NUMA topology that was specified for the instance through the use of flavor extra_specs in combination with the image properties, as described in detail in the related nova-spec document. Filter will try to match the exact NUMA cells of the instance to those of the host. It will consider the standard over-subscription limits for each host NUMA cell, and provide limits to the compute host accordingly.

Note

If instance has no topology defined, it will be considered for any host. If instance has a topology defined, it will be considered only for NUMA capable hosts.

NumInstancesFilter

Hosts that have more instances running than specified by the max_instances_per_host option are filtered out when this filter is in place.

PciPassthroughFilter

The filter schedules instances on a host if the host has devices that meet the device requests in the extra_specs attribute for the flavor.

RetryFilter

Deprecated since version 20.0.0: Since the 17.0.0 (Queens) release, the scheduler has provided alternate hosts for rescheduling so the scheduler does not need to be called during a reschedule which makes the RetryFilter useless. See the Return Alternate Hosts spec for details.

Filters out hosts that have already been attempted for scheduling purposes. If the scheduler selects a host to respond to a service request, and the host fails to respond to the request, this filter prevents the scheduler from retrying that host for the service request.

This filter is only useful if the scheduler.max_attempts configuration option is set to a value greater than one.

SameHostFilter

Schedules the instance on the same host as another instance in a set of instances. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must pass a scheduler hint, using same_host as the key and a list of instance UUIDs as the value. This filter is the opposite of the DifferentHostFilter. Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag:

$ openstack server create --image cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175 \
  --flavor 1 --hint same_host=a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1 \
  --hint same_host=8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287 server-1

With the API, use the os:scheduler_hints key:

{
    "server": {
        "name": "server-1",
        "imageRef": "cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175",
        "flavorRef": "1"
    },
    "os:scheduler_hints": {
        "same_host": [
            "a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1",
            "8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287"
        ]
    }
}

ServerGroupAffinityFilter

The ServerGroupAffinityFilter ensures that an instance is scheduled on to a host from a set of group hosts. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must create a server group with an affinity policy, and pass a scheduler hint, using group as the key and the server group UUID as the value. Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag. For example:

$ openstack server group create --policy affinity group-1
$ openstack server create --image IMAGE_ID --flavor 1 \
  --hint group=SERVER_GROUP_UUID server-1

ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter

The ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter ensures that each instance in a group is on a different host. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must create a server group with an anti-affinity policy, and pass a scheduler hint, using group as the key and the server group UUID as the value. Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag. For example:

$ openstack server group create --policy anti-affinity group-1
$ openstack server create --image IMAGE_ID --flavor 1 \
  --hint group=SERVER_GROUP_UUID server-1

SimpleCIDRAffinityFilter

Schedules the instance based on host IP subnet range. To take advantage of this filter, the requester must specify a range of valid IP address in CIDR format, by passing two scheduler hints:

build_near_host_ip

The first IP address in the subnet (for example, 192.168.1.1)

cidr

The CIDR that corresponds to the subnet (for example, /24)

Using the openstack server create command, use the --hint flag. For example, to specify the IP subnet 192.168.1.1/24:

$ openstack server create --image cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175 \
  --flavor 1 --hint build_near_host_ip=192.168.1.1 --hint cidr=/24 server-1

With the API, use the os:scheduler_hints key:

{
    "server": {
        "name": "server-1",
        "imageRef": "cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175",
        "flavorRef": "1"
    },
    "os:scheduler_hints": {
        "build_near_host_ip": "192.168.1.1",
        "cidr": "24"
    }
}

Weights

When resourcing instances, the filter scheduler filters and weights each host in the list of acceptable hosts. Each time the scheduler selects a host, it virtually consumes resources on it, and subsequent selections are adjusted accordingly. This process is useful when the customer asks for the same large amount of instances, because weight is computed for each requested instance.

All weights are normalized before being summed up; the host with the largest weight is given the highest priority.

Weighting hosts

../../_images/nova-weighting-hosts.png

Hosts are weighted based on the following options in the /etc/nova/nova.conf file:

Host weighting options

Section

Option

Description

[DEFAULT]

ram_weight_multiplier

By default, the scheduler spreads instances across all hosts evenly. Set the ram_weight_multiplier option to a negative number if you prefer stacking instead of spreading. Use a floating-point value. If the per aggregate ram_weight_multiplier metadata is set, this multiplier will override the configuration option value.

[DEFAULT]

disk_weight_multiplier

By default, the scheduler spreads instances across all hosts evenly. Set the disk_weight_multiplier option to a negative number if you prefer stacking instead of spreading. Use a floating-point value. If the per aggregate disk_weight_multiplier metadata is set, this multiplier will override the configuration option value.

[DEFAULT]

cpu_weight_multiplier

By default, the scheduler spreads instances across all hosts evenly. Set the cpu_weight_multiplier option to a negative number if you prefer stacking instead of spreading. Use a floating-point value. If the per aggregate cpu_weight_multiplier metadata is set, this multiplier will override the configuration option value.

[DEFAULT]

scheduler_host_subset_size

New instances are scheduled on a host that is chosen randomly from a subset of the N best hosts. This property defines the subset size from which a host is chosen. A value of 1 chooses the first host returned by the weighting functions. This value must be at least 1. A value less than 1 is ignored, and 1 is used instead. Use an integer value.

[DEFAULT]

scheduler_weight_classes

Defaults to nova.scheduler.weights.all_weighers. Hosts are then weighted and sorted with the largest weight winning.

[DEFAULT]

io_ops_weight_multiplier

Multiplier used for weighing host I/O operations. A negative value means a preference to choose light workload compute hosts. If the per aggregate io_ops_weight_multiplier metadata is set, this multiplier will override the configuration option value.

[filter_scheduler]

soft_affinity_weight_multiplier

Multiplier used for weighing hosts for group soft-affinity. Only a positive value is allowed.

[filter_scheduler] If the per aggregate soft_affinity_weight_multiplier metadata is set, this multiplier will override the configuration option value.

soft_anti_affinity_weight_multiplier

Multiplier used for weighing hosts for group soft-anti-affinity. Only a positive value is allowed. If the per aggregate soft_anti_affinity_weight_multiplier metadata is set, this multiplier will override the configuration option value.

[filter_scheduler]

build_failure_weight_multiplier

Multiplier used for weighing hosts which have recent build failures. A positive value increases the significance of build failures reported by the host recently, making them less likely to be chosen. If the per aggregate build_failure_weight_multiplier metadata is set, this multiplier will override the configuration option value.

[metrics]

weight_multiplier

Multiplier for weighting meters. Use a floating-point value. If the per aggregate metrics_weight_multiplier metadata is set, this multiplier will override the configuration option value.

[metrics]

weight_setting

Determines how meters are weighted. Use a comma-separated list of metricName=ratio. For example: name1=1.0, name2=-1.0 results in: name1.value * 1.0 + name2.value * -1.0

[metrics]

required

Specifies how to treat unavailable meters:

  • True - Raises an exception. To avoid the raised exception, you should use the scheduler filter MetricFilter to filter out hosts with unavailable meters.

  • False - Treated as a negative factor in the weighting process (uses the weight_of_unavailable option).

[metrics]

weight_of_unavailable

If required is set to False, and any one of the meters set by weight_setting is unavailable, the weight_of_unavailable value is returned to the scheduler.

For example:

[DEFAULT]
scheduler_host_subset_size = 1
scheduler_weight_classes = nova.scheduler.weights.all_weighers
ram_weight_multiplier = 1.0
io_ops_weight_multiplier = 2.0
soft_affinity_weight_multiplier = 1.0
soft_anti_affinity_weight_multiplier = 1.0
[metrics]
weight_multiplier = 1.0
weight_setting = name1=1.0, name2=-1.0
required = false
weight_of_unavailable = -10000.0

Utilization aware scheduling

It is possible to schedule VMs using advanced scheduling decisions. These decisions are made based on enhanced usage statistics encompassing data like memory cache utilization, memory bandwidth utilization, or network bandwidth utilization. This is disabled by default. The administrator can configure how the metrics are weighted in the configuration file by using the weight_setting configuration option in the nova.conf configuration file. For example to configure metric1 with ratio1 and metric2 with ratio2:

weight_setting = "metric1=ratio1, metric2=ratio2"

XenServer hypervisor pools to support live migration

When using the XenAPI-based hypervisor, the Compute service uses host aggregates to manage XenServer Resource pools, which are used in supporting live migration.

Allocation ratios

The following configuration options exist to control allocation ratios per compute node to support over-commit of resources:

Prior to the 19.0.0 Stein release, if left unset, the cpu_allocation_ratio defaults to 16.0, the ram_allocation_ratio defaults to 1.5, and the disk_allocation_ratio defaults to 1.0.

Starting with the 19.0.0 Stein release, the following configuration options control the initial allocation ratio values for a compute node:

Scheduling considerations

The allocation ratio configuration is used both during reporting of compute node resource provider inventory to the placement service and during scheduling.

Note

Regarding the AggregateCoreFilter, AggregateDiskFilter and AggregateRamFilter, starting in 15.0.0 (Ocata) there is a behavior change where aggregate-based overcommit ratios will no longer be honored during scheduling for the FilterScheduler. Instead, overcommit values must be set on a per-compute-node basis in the Nova configuration files.

If you have been relying on per-aggregate overcommit, during your upgrade, you must change to using per-compute-node overcommit ratios in order for your scheduling behavior to stay consistent. Otherwise, you may notice increased NoValidHost scheduling failures as the aggregate-based overcommit is no longer being considered.

See bug 1804125 for more details.

Usage scenarios

Since allocation ratios can be set via nova configuration, host aggregate metadata and the placement API, it can be confusing to know which should be used. This really depends on your scenario. A few common scenarios are detailed here.

  1. When the deployer wants to always set an override value for a resource on a compute node, the deployer would ensure that the [DEFAULT]/cpu_allocation_ratio, [DEFAULT]/ram_allocation_ratio and [DEFAULT]/disk_allocation_ratio configuration options are set to a non-None value (or greater than 0.0 before the 19.0.0 Stein release). This will make the nova-compute service overwrite any externally-set allocation ratio values set via the placement REST API.

  2. When the deployer wants to set an initial value for a compute node allocation ratio but wants to allow an admin to adjust this afterwards without making any configuration file changes, the deployer would set the [DEFAULT]/initial_cpu_allocation_ratio, [DEFAULT]/initial_ram_allocation_ratio and [DEFAULT]/initial_disk_allocation_ratio configuration options and then manage the allocation ratios using the placement REST API (or osc-placement command line interface). For example:

    $ openstack resource provider inventory set --resource VCPU:allocation_ratio=1.0 815a5634-86fb-4e1e-8824-8a631fee3e06
    

    Note the bug 1804125 restriction.

  3. When the deployer wants to always use the placement API to set allocation ratios, then the deployer should ensure that [DEFAULT]/xxx_allocation_ratio options are all set to None (the default since 19.0.0 Stein, 0.0 before Stein) and then manage the allocation ratios using the placement REST API (or osc-placement command line interface).

    This scenario is the workaround for bug 1804125.

Hypervisor-specific considerations

Nova provides three configuration options, reserved_host_cpus, reserved_host_memory_mb, and reserved_host_disk_mb, that can be used to set aside some number of resources that will not be consumed by an instance, whether these resources are overcommitted or not. Some virt drivers may benefit from the use of these options to account for hypervisor-specific overhead.

HyperV

Hyper-V creates a VM memory file on the local disk when an instance starts. The size of this file corresponds to the amount of RAM allocated to the instance.

You should configure the reserved_host_disk_mb config option to account for this overhead, based on the amount of memory available to instances.

XenAPI

XenServer memory overhead is proportional to the size of the VM and larger flavor VMs become more efficient with respect to overhead. This overhead can be calculated using the following formula:

overhead (MB) = (instance.memory * 0.00781) + (instance.vcpus * 1.5) + 3

You should configure the reserved_host_memory_mb config option to account for this overhead, based on the size of your hosts and instances. For more information, refer to https://wiki.openstack.org/wiki/XenServer/Overhead.

Cells considerations

By default cells are enabled for scheduling new instances but they can be disabled (new schedulings to the cell are blocked). This may be useful for users while performing cell maintenance, failures or other interventions. It is to be noted that creating pre-disabled cells and enabling/disabling existing cells should either be followed by a restart or SIGHUP of the nova-scheduler service for the changes to take effect.

Command-line interface

The nova-manage command-line client supports the cell-disable related commands. To enable or disable a cell, use nova-manage cell_v2 update_cell and to create pre-disabled cells, use nova-manage cell_v2 create_cell. See the Nova Cells v2 man page for details on command usage.

Compute capabilities as traits

Starting with the 19.0.0 Stein release, the nova-compute service will report certain COMPUTE_* traits based on its compute driver capabilities to the placement service. The traits will be associated with the resource provider for that compute service. These traits can be used during scheduling by configuring flavors with Required traits or Forbidden traits. For example, if you have a host aggregate with a set of compute nodes that support multi-attach volumes, you can restrict a flavor to that aggregate by adding the trait:COMPUTE_VOLUME_MULTI_ATTACH=required extra spec to the flavor and then restrict the flavor to the aggregate as normal.

Here is an example of a libvirt compute node resource provider that is exposing some CPU features as traits, driver capabilities as traits, and a custom trait denoted by the CUSTOM_ prefix:

$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 resource provider trait list \
> d9b3dbc4-50e2-42dd-be98-522f6edaab3f --sort-column name
+---------------------------------------+
| name                                  |
+---------------------------------------+
| COMPUTE_DEVICE_TAGGING                |
| COMPUTE_NET_ATTACH_INTERFACE          |
| COMPUTE_NET_ATTACH_INTERFACE_WITH_TAG |
| COMPUTE_TRUSTED_CERTS                 |
| COMPUTE_VOLUME_ATTACH_WITH_TAG        |
| COMPUTE_VOLUME_EXTEND                 |
| COMPUTE_VOLUME_MULTI_ATTACH           |
| CUSTOM_IMAGE_TYPE_RBD                 |
| HW_CPU_X86_MMX                        |
| HW_CPU_X86_SSE                        |
| HW_CPU_X86_SSE2                       |
| HW_CPU_X86_SVM                        |
+---------------------------------------+

Rules

There are some rules associated with capability-defined traits.

  1. The compute service “owns” these traits and will add/remove them when the nova-compute service starts and when the update_available_resource periodic task runs, with run intervals controlled by config option update_resources_interval.

  2. The compute service will not remove any custom traits set on the resource provider externally, such as the CUSTOM_IMAGE_TYPE_RBD trait in the example above.

  3. If compute-owned traits are removed from the resource provider externally, for example by running openstack resource provider trait delete <rp_uuid>, the compute service will add its traits again on restart or SIGHUP.

  4. If a compute trait is set on the resource provider externally which is not supported by the driver, for example by adding the COMPUTE_VOLUME_EXTEND trait when the driver does not support that capability, the compute service will automatically remove the unsupported trait on restart or SIGHUP.

  5. Compute capability traits are standard traits defined in the os-traits library.

Further information on capabilities and traits can be found in the Technical Reference Deep Dives section.