Galera cluster maintenance

Galera cluster maintenance

Routine maintenance includes gracefully adding or removing nodes from the cluster without impacting operation and also starting a cluster after gracefully shutting down all nodes.

MySQL instances are restarted when creating a cluster, when adding a node, when the service is not running, or when changes are made to the /etc/mysql/my.cnf configuration file.

Verify cluster status

Compare the output of the following command with the following output. It should give you information about the status of your cluster.

# ansible galera_container -m shell -a "mysql -h 127.0.0.1 \
-e 'show status like \"%wsrep_cluster_%\";'"
node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server
through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (2)

node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server
through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (2)

node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
Variable_name             Value
wsrep_cluster_conf_id     7
wsrep_cluster_size        1
wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
wsrep_cluster_status      Primary

In the previous example, all but one node was responding.

Gracefully shutting down the MariaDB service on all but one node allows the remaining operational node to continue processing SQL requests. When gracefully shutting down multiple nodes, perform the actions sequentially to retain operation.

Start a cluster

Gracefully shutting down all nodes destroys the cluster. Starting or restarting a cluster from zero nodes requires creating a new cluster on one of the nodes.

  1. Start a new cluster on the most advanced node. Change to the playbooks directory and check the seqno value in the grastate.dat file on all of the nodes:

    # ansible galera_container -m shell -a "cat /var/lib/mysql/grastate.dat"
    node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | success | rc=0 >>
    # GALERA saved state version: 2.1
    uuid:    338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    seqno:   31
    cert_index:
    
    node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | success | rc=0 >>
    # GALERA saved state version: 2.1
    uuid:    338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    seqno:   31
    cert_index:
    
    node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
    # GALERA saved state version: 2.1
    uuid:    338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    seqno:   31
    cert_index:
    

    In this example, all nodes in the cluster contain the same positive seqno values as they were synchronized just prior to graceful shutdown. If all seqno values are equal, any node can start the new cluster.

    ## for init
    # /etc/init.d/mysql start --wsrep-new-cluster
    ## for systemd
    # systemctl set-environment _WSREP_NEW_CLUSTER='--wsrep-new-cluster'
    # systemctl start mysql
    # systemctl set-environment _WSREP_NEW_CLUSTER=''
    

    Please also have a look at upstream starting a cluster page

    This can also be done with the help of ansible using the shell module:

    # ansible galera_container -m shell -a "/etc/init.d/mysql start --wsrep-new-cluster" --limit galera_container[0]
    

    This command results in a cluster containing a single node. The wsrep_cluster_size value shows the number of nodes in the cluster.

    node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
    ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server
    through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (111)
    
    node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
    ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server
    through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (2)
    
    node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     1
    wsrep_cluster_size        1
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
  2. Restart MariaDB on the other nodes (replace [0] from previous ansible command with [1:]) and verify that they rejoin the cluster.

    node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     3
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     3
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     3
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    

Galera cluster recovery

Run the galera-install playbook using the galera-bootstrap tag to automatically recover a node or an entire environment.

  1. Run the following Ansible command to show the failed nodes:

    # openstack-ansible galera-install.yml --tags galera-bootstrap
    

The cluster comes back online after completion of this command.

Recover a single-node failure

If a single node fails, the other nodes maintain quorum and continue to process SQL requests.

  1. Change to the playbooks directory and run the following Ansible command to determine the failed node:

    # ansible galera_container -m shell -a "mysql -h 127.0.0.1 \
    -e 'show status like \"%wsrep_cluster_%\";'"
    node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
    ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server through
    socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (111)
    
    node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     17
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     17
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    

    In this example, node 3 has failed.

  2. Restart MariaDB on the failed node and verify that it rejoins the cluster.

  3. If MariaDB fails to start, run the mysqld command and perform further analysis on the output. As a last resort, rebuild the container for the node.

Recover a multi-node failure

When all but one node fails, the remaining node cannot achieve quorum and stops processing SQL requests. In this situation, failed nodes that recover cannot join the cluster because it no longer exists.

  1. Run the following Ansible command to show the failed nodes:

    # ansible galera_container -m shell -a "mysql \
    -h 127.0.0.1 -e 'show status like \"%wsrep_cluster_%\";'"
    node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
    ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server
    through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (111)
    
    node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
    ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server
    through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (111)
    
    node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     18446744073709551615
    wsrep_cluster_size        1
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      non-Primary
    

    In this example, nodes 2 and 3 have failed. The remaining operational server indicates non-Primary because it cannot achieve quorum.

  2. Run the following command to rebootstrap the operational node into the cluster:

    # mysql -e "SET GLOBAL wsrep_provider_options='pc.bootstrap=yes';"
    node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     15
    wsrep_cluster_size        1
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
    ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server
    through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (111)
    
    node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
    ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server
    through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (111)
    

    The remaining operational node becomes the primary node and begins processing SQL requests.

  3. Restart MariaDB on the failed nodes and verify that they rejoin the cluster:

    # ansible galera_container -m shell -a "mysql \
    -h 127.0.0.1 -e 'show status like \"%wsrep_cluster_%\";'"
    node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     17
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     17
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     17
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
  4. If MariaDB fails to start on any of the failed nodes, run the mysqld command and perform further analysis on the output. As a last resort, rebuild the container for the node.

Recover a complete environment failure

Restore from backup if all of the nodes in a Galera cluster fail (do not shutdown gracefully). Change to the playbook directory and run the following command to determine if all nodes in the cluster have failed:

# ansible galera_container -m shell -a "cat /var/lib/mysql/grastate.dat"
node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | success | rc=0 >>
# GALERA saved state
version: 2.1
uuid:    338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
seqno:   -1
cert_index:

node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | success | rc=0 >>
# GALERA saved state
version: 2.1
uuid:    338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
seqno:   -1
cert_index:

node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
# GALERA saved state
version: 2.1
uuid:    338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
seqno:   -1
cert_index:

All the nodes have failed if mysqld is not running on any of the nodes and all of the nodes contain a seqno value of -1.

If any single node has a positive seqno value, then that node can be used to restart the cluster. However, because there is no guarantee that each node has an identical copy of the data, we do not recommend to restart the cluster using the --wsrep-new-cluster command on one node.

Rebuild a container

Recovering from certain failures require rebuilding one or more containers.

  1. Disable the failed node on the load balancer.

    Note

    Do not rely on the load balancer health checks to disable the node. If the node is not disabled, the load balancer sends SQL requests to it before it rejoins the cluster and cause data inconsistencies.

  2. Destroy the container and remove MariaDB data stored outside of the container:

    # lxc-stop -n node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3
    # lxc-destroy -n node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3
    # rm -rf /openstack/node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3/*
    

    In this example, node 3 failed.

  3. Run the host setup playbook to rebuild the container on node 3:

    # openstack-ansible setup-hosts.yml -l node3 \
    -l node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3
    

    The playbook restarts all other containers on the node.

  4. Run the infrastructure playbook to configure the container specifically on node 3:

    # openstack-ansible setup-infrastructure.yml \
    --limit node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3
    

    Warning

    The new container runs a single-node Galera cluster, which is a dangerous state because the environment contains more than one active database with potentially different data.

    # ansible galera_container -m shell -a "mysql \
    -h 127.0.0.1 -e 'show status like \"%wsrep_cluster_%\";'"
    node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     1
    wsrep_cluster_size        1
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  da078d01-29e5-11e4-a051-03d896dbdb2d
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     4
    wsrep_cluster_size        2
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     4
    wsrep_cluster_size        2
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
  5. Restart MariaDB in the new container and verify that it rejoins the cluster.

    Note

    In larger deployments, it may take some time for the MariaDB daemon to start in the new container. It will be synchronizing data from the other MariaDB servers during this time. You can monitor the status during this process by tailing the /var/log/mysql_logs/galera_server_error.log log file.

    Lines starting with WSREP_SST will appear during the sync process and you should see a line with WSREP: SST complete, seqno: <NUMBER> if the sync was successful.

    # ansible galera_container -m shell -a "mysql \
    -h 127.0.0.1 -e 'show status like \"%wsrep_cluster_%\";'"
    node2_galera_container-49a47d25 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     5
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node3_galera_container-3ea2cbd3 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     5
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
    node4_galera_container-76275635 | success | rc=0 >>
    Variable_name             Value
    wsrep_cluster_conf_id     5
    wsrep_cluster_size        3
    wsrep_cluster_state_uuid  338b06b0-2948-11e4-9d06-bef42f6c52f1
    wsrep_cluster_status      Primary
    
  6. Enable the previously failed node on the load balancer.

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