Upgrades

Upgrades

With the exception of Object Storage, upgrading from one version of OpenStack to another can take a great deal of effort. This chapter provides some guidance on the operational aspects that you should consider for performing an upgrade for an OpenStack environment.

Pre-upgrade considerations

Upgrade planning

  • Thoroughly review the release notes to learn about new, updated, and deprecated features. Find incompatibilities between versions.
  • Consider the impact of an upgrade to users. The upgrade process interrupts management of your environment including the dashboard. If you properly prepare for the upgrade, existing instances, networking, and storage should continue to operate. However, instances might experience intermittent network interruptions.
  • Consider the approach to upgrading your environment. You can perform an upgrade with operational instances, but this is a dangerous approach. You might consider using live migration to temporarily relocate instances to other compute nodes while performing upgrades. However, you must ensure database consistency throughout the process; otherwise your environment might become unstable. Also, don’t forget to provide sufficient notice to your users, including giving them plenty of time to perform their own backups.
  • Consider adopting structure and options from the service configuration files and merging them with existing configuration files. The OpenStack Configuration Reference contains new, updated, and deprecated options for most services.
  • Like all major system upgrades, your upgrade could fail for one or more reasons. You can prepare for this situation by having the ability to roll back your environment to the previous release, including databases, configuration files, and packages. We provide an example process for rolling back your environment in Rolling back a failed upgrade.
  • Develop an upgrade procedure and assess it thoroughly by using a test environment similar to your production environment.

Pre-upgrade testing environment

The most important step is the pre-upgrade testing. If you are upgrading immediately after release of a new version, undiscovered bugs might hinder your progress. Some deployers prefer to wait until the first point release is announced. However, if you have a significant deployment, you might follow the development and testing of the release to ensure that bugs for your use cases are fixed.

Each OpenStack cloud is different even if you have a near-identical architecture as described in this guide. As a result, you must still test upgrades between versions in your environment using an approximate clone of your environment.

However, that is not to say that it needs to be the same size or use identical hardware as the production environment. It is important to consider the hardware and scale of the cloud that you are upgrading. The following tips can help you minimise the cost:

Use your own cloud
The simplest place to start testing the next version of OpenStack is by setting up a new environment inside your own cloud. This might seem odd, especially the double virtualization used in running compute nodes. But it is a sure way to very quickly test your configuration.
Use a public cloud
Consider using a public cloud to test the scalability limits of your cloud controller configuration. Most public clouds bill by the hour, which means it can be inexpensive to perform even a test with many nodes.
Make another storage endpoint on the same system
If you use an external storage plug-in or shared file system with your cloud, you can test whether it works by creating a second share or endpoint. This allows you to test the system before entrusting the new version on to your storage.
Watch the network
Even at smaller-scale testing, look for excess network packets to determine whether something is going horribly wrong in inter-component communication.

To set up the test environment, you can use one of several methods:

  • Do a full manual install by using the Installation Tutorials and Guides for your platform. Review the final configuration files and installed packages.

  • Create a clone of your automated configuration infrastructure with changed package repository URLs.

    Alter the configuration until it works.

Either approach is valid. Use the approach that matches your experience.

An upgrade pre-testing system is excellent for getting the configuration to work. However, it is important to note that the historical use of the system and differences in user interaction can affect the success of upgrades.

If possible, we highly recommend that you dump your production database tables and test the upgrade in your development environment using this data. Several MySQL bugs have been uncovered during database migrations because of slight table differences between a fresh installation and tables that migrated from one version to another. This will have impact on large real datasets, which you do not want to encounter during a production outage.

Artificial scale testing can go only so far. After your cloud is upgraded, you must pay careful attention to the performance aspects of your cloud.

Upgrade Levels

Upgrade levels are a feature added to OpenStack Compute since the Grizzly release to provide version locking on the RPC (Message Queue) communications between the various Compute services.

This functionality is an important piece of the puzzle when it comes to live upgrades and is conceptually similar to the existing API versioning that allows OpenStack services of different versions to communicate without issue.

Without upgrade levels, an X+1 version Compute service can receive and understand X version RPC messages, but it can only send out X+1 version RPC messages. For example, if a nova-conductor process has been upgraded to X+1 version, then the conductor service will be able to understand messages from X version nova-compute processes, but those compute services will not be able to understand messages sent by the conductor service.

During an upgrade, operators can add configuration options to nova.conf which lock the version of RPC messages and allow live upgrading of the services without interruption caused by version mismatch. The configuration options allow the specification of RPC version numbers if desired, but release name alias are also supported. For example:

[upgrade_levels]
compute=X+1
conductor=X+1
scheduler=X+1

will keep the RPC version locked across the specified services to the RPC version used in X+1. As all instances of a particular service are upgraded to the newer version, the corresponding line can be removed from nova.conf.

Using this functionality, ideally one would lock the RPC version to the OpenStack version being upgraded from on nova-compute nodes, to ensure that, for example X+1 version nova-compute processes will continue to work with X version nova-conductor processes while the upgrade completes. Once the upgrade of nova-compute processes is complete, the operator can move onto upgrading nova-conductor and remove the version locking for nova-compute in nova.conf.

Upgrade process

This section describes the process to upgrade a basic OpenStack deployment based on the basic two-node architecture in the Installation Tutorials and Guides. All nodes must run a supported distribution of Linux with a recent kernel and the current release packages.

Prerequisites

  • Perform some cleaning of the environment prior to starting the upgrade process to ensure a consistent state. For example, instances not fully purged from the system after deletion might cause indeterminate behavior.

  • For environments using the OpenStack Networking service (neutron), verify the release version of the database. For example:

    # su -s /bin/sh -c "neutron-db-manage --config-file /etc/neutron/neutron.conf \
      --config-file /etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/ml2_conf.ini current" neutron
    

Perform a backup

  1. Save the configuration files on all nodes. For example:

    # for i in keystone glance nova neutron openstack-dashboard cinder heat ceilometer; \
      do mkdir $i-RELEASE_NAME; \
      done
    # for i in keystone glance nova neutron openstack-dashboard cinder heat ceilometer; \
      do cp -r /etc/$i/* $i-RELEASE_NAME/; \
      done
    

    Note

    You can modify this example script on each node to handle different services.

  2. Make a full database backup of your production data. Since the Kilo release, database downgrades are not supported, and restoring from backup is the only method available to retrieve a previous database version.

    # mysqldump -u root -p --opt --add-drop-database --all-databases > RELEASE_NAME-db-backup.sql
    

    Note

    Consider updating your SQL server configuration as described in the Installation Tutorials and Guides.

Manage repositories

On all nodes:

  1. Remove the repository for the previous release packages.
  2. Add the repository for the new release packages.
  3. Update the repository database.

Upgrade packages on each node

Depending on your specific configuration, upgrading all packages might restart or break services supplemental to your OpenStack environment. For example, if you use the TGT iSCSI framework for Block Storage volumes and the upgrade includes new packages for it, the package manager might restart the TGT iSCSI services and impact connectivity to volumes.

If the package manager prompts you to update configuration files, reject the changes. The package manager appends a suffix to newer versions of configuration files. Consider reviewing and adopting content from these files.

Note

You may need to explicitly install the ipset package if your distribution does not install it as a dependency.

Update services

To update a service on each node, you generally modify one or more configuration files, stop the service, synchronize the database schema, and start the service. Some services require different steps. We recommend verifying operation of each service before proceeding to the next service.

The order you should upgrade services, and any changes from the general upgrade process is described below:

Controller node

  1. Identity service - Clear any expired tokens before synchronizing the database.
  2. Image service
  3. Compute service, including networking components.
  4. Networking service
  5. Block Storage service
  6. Dashboard - In typical environments, updating Dashboard only requires restarting the Apache HTTP service.
  7. Orchestration service
  8. Telemetry service - In typical environments, updating the Telemetry service only requires restarting the service.
  9. Compute service - Edit the configuration file and restart the service.
  10. Networking service - Edit the configuration file and restart the service.

Storage nodes

  • Block Storage service - Updating the Block Storage service only requires restarting the service.

Compute nodes

  • Networking service - Edit the configuration file and restart the service.

Final steps

On all distributions, you must perform some final tasks to complete the upgrade process.

  1. Decrease DHCP timeouts by modifying the /etc/nova/nova.conf file on the compute nodes back to the original value for your environment.
  2. Update all .ini files to match passwords and pipelines as required for the OpenStack release in your environment.
  3. After migration, users see different results from openstack image list and glance image-list. To ensure users see the same images in the list commands, edit the /etc/glance/policy.json file and /etc/nova/policy.json file to contain "context_is_admin": "role:admin", which limits access to private images for projects.
  4. Verify proper operation of your environment. Then, notify your users that their cloud is operating normally again.

Rolling back a failed upgrade

This section provides guidance for rolling back to a previous release of OpenStack. All distributions follow a similar procedure.

Warning

Rolling back your environment should be the final course of action since you are likely to lose any data added since the backup.

A common scenario is to take down production management services in preparation for an upgrade, completed part of the upgrade process, and discovered one or more problems not encountered during testing. As a consequence, you must roll back your environment to the original “known good” state. You also made sure that you did not make any state changes after attempting the upgrade process; no new instances, networks, storage volumes, and so on. Any of these new resources will be in a frozen state after the databases are restored from backup.

Within this scope, you must complete these steps to successfully roll back your environment:

  1. Roll back configuration files.
  2. Restore databases from backup.
  3. Roll back packages.

You should verify that you have the requisite backups to restore. Rolling back upgrades is a tricky process because distributions tend to put much more effort into testing upgrades than downgrades. Broken downgrades take significantly more effort to troubleshoot and, resolve than broken upgrades. Only you can weigh the risks of trying to push a failed upgrade forward versus rolling it back. Generally, consider rolling back as the very last option.

The following steps described for Ubuntu have worked on at least one production environment, but they might not work for all environments.

To perform a rollback

  1. Stop all OpenStack services.

  2. Copy contents of configuration backup directories that you created during the upgrade process back to /etc/<service> directory.

  3. Restore databases from the RELEASE_NAME-db-backup.sql backup file that you created with the mysqldump command during the upgrade process:

    # mysql -u root -p < RELEASE_NAME-db-backup.sql
    
  4. Downgrade OpenStack packages.

    Warning

    Downgrading packages is by far the most complicated step; it is highly dependent on the distribution and the overall administration of the system.

    1. Determine which OpenStack packages are installed on your system. Use the dpkg --get-selections command. Filter for OpenStack packages, filter again to omit packages explicitly marked in the deinstall state, and save the final output to a file. For example, the following command covers a controller node with keystone, glance, nova, neutron, and cinder:

      # dpkg --get-selections | grep -e keystone -e glance -e nova -e neutron \
      -e cinder | grep -v deinstall | tee openstack-selections
      cinder-api                                      install
      cinder-common                                   install
      cinder-scheduler                                install
      cinder-volume                                   install
      glance                                          install
      glance-api                                      install
      glance-common                                   install
      glance-registry                                 install
      neutron-common                                  install
      neutron-dhcp-agent                              install
      neutron-l3-agent                                install
      neutron-lbaas-agent                             install
      neutron-metadata-agent                          install
      neutron-plugin-openvswitch                      install
      neutron-plugin-openvswitch-agent                install
      neutron-server                                  install
      nova-api                                        install
      nova-cert                                       install
      nova-common                                     install
      nova-conductor                                  install
      nova-consoleauth                                install
      nova-novncproxy                                 install
      nova-objectstore                                install
      nova-scheduler                                  install
      python-cinder                                   install
      python-cinderclient                             install
      python-glance                                   install
      python-glanceclient                             install
      python-keystone                                 install
      python-keystoneclient                           install
      python-neutron                                  install
      python-neutronclient                            install
      python-nova                                     install
      python-novaclient                               install
      

      Note

      Depending on the type of server, the contents and order of your package list might vary from this example.

    2. You can determine the package versions available for reversion by using the apt-cache policy command. For example:

      # apt-cache policy nova-common
      
      nova-common:
      Installed: 2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      Candidate: 2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      Version table:
      *** 2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0 500
            500 http://ubuntu-cloud.archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial-updates/newton/main amd64 Packages
            100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
          2:13.1.2-0ubuntu2 500
            500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-updates/main amd64 Packages
          2:13.0.0-0ubuntu2 500
            500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages
      

      Note

      If you removed the release repositories, you must first reinstall them and run the apt-get update command.

      The command output lists the currently installed version of the package, newest candidate version, and all versions along with the repository that contains each version. Look for the appropriate release version— 2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0 in this case. The process of manually picking through this list of packages is rather tedious and prone to errors. You should consider using a script to help with this process. For example:

      # for i in `cut -f 1 openstack-selections | sed 's/neutron/;'`;
        do echo -n $i ;apt-cache policy $i | grep -B 1 RELEASE_NAME |
        grep -v Packages | awk '{print "="$1}';done | tr '\n' ' ' |
        tee openstack-RELEASE_NAME-versions
      cinder-api=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      cinder-common=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      cinder-scheduler=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      cinder-volume=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      glance=2:13.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      glance-api=2:13.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0 500
      glance-common=2:13.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0 500
      glance-registry=2:13.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0 500
      neutron-common=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      neutron-dhcp-agent=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      neutron-l3-agent=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      neutron-lbaas-agent=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      neutron-metadata-agent=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      neutron-server=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      nova-api=2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      nova-cert=2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      nova-common=2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      nova-conductor=2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      nova-consoleauth=2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      nova-novncproxy=2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      nova-objectstore=2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      nova-scheduler=2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      python-cinder=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      python-cinderclient=1:1.9.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      python-glance=2:13.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      python-glanceclient=1:2.5.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      python-neutron=2:9.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      python-neutronclient=1:6.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      python-nova=2:14.0.1-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      python-novaclient=2:6.0.0-0ubuntu1~cloud0
      python-openstackclient=3.2.0-0ubuntu2~cloud0
      
    3. Use the apt-get install command to install specific versions of each package by specifying <package-name>=<version>. The script in the previous step conveniently created a list of package=version pairs for you:

      # apt-get install `cat openstack-RELEASE_NAME-versions`
      

      This step completes the rollback procedure. You should remove the upgrade release repository and run apt-get update to prevent accidental upgrades until you solve whatever issue caused you to roll back your environment.

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