Deploying OpenWRT as VNF

Deploying OpenWRT as VNF

Once tacker is installed successfully, follow the steps given below to get started with deploying OpenWRT as VNF.

1.Ensure Glance already contains OpenWRT image. Normally, Tacker tries to add OpenWRT image to Glance while installing via devstack. By running openstack image list to check OpenWRT image if exists. If not, download the customized image of OpenWRT 15.05.1 [1]. Unzip the file by using the command below:

gunzip openwrt-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img.gz

And then upload this image into Glance by using the command specified below:

openstack image create OpenWRT --disk-format qcow2 \
                               --container-format bare \
                               --file /path_to_image/openwrt-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img \
                               --public

2.The below example shows how to create the OpenWRT-based Firewall VNF. First, we have a yaml template which contains the configuration of OpenWRT as shown below:

tosca-vnfd-openwrt.yaml [2]

tosca_definitions_version: tosca_simple_profile_for_nfv_1_0_0

description: OpenWRT with services

metadata:
  template_name: OpenWRT

topology_template:
  node_templates:

    VDU1:
      type: tosca.nodes.nfv.VDU.Tacker
      capabilities:
        nfv_compute:
          properties:
            num_cpus: 1
            mem_size: 512 MB
            disk_size: 1 GB
      properties:
        image: OpenWRT
        config: |
          param0: key1
          param1: key2
        mgmt_driver: openwrt
        monitoring_policy:
          name: ping
          parameters:
            count: 3
            interval: 10
          actions:
            failure: respawn

     CP1:
      type: tosca.nodes.nfv.CP.Tacker
      properties:
        management: true
        order: 0
        anti_spoofing_protection: false
      requirements:
        - virtualLink:
           node: VL1
        - virtualBinding:
            node: VDU1

     CP2:
      type: tosca.nodes.nfv.CP.Tacker
      properties:
        order: 1
        anti_spoofing_protection: false
      requirements:
        - virtualLink:
            node: VL2
        - virtualBinding:
            node: VDU1

     CP3:
      type: tosca.nodes.nfv.CP.Tacker
      properties:
        order: 2
        anti_spoofing_protection: false
      requirements:
        - virtualLink:
            node: VL3
        - virtualBinding:
            node: VDU1

     VL1:
      type: tosca.nodes.nfv.VL
      properties:
        network_name: net_mgmt
        vendor: Tacker

     VL2:
      type: tosca.nodes.nfv.VL
      properties:
        network_name: net0
        vendor: Tacker

     VL3:
      type: tosca.nodes.nfv.VL
      properties:
        network_name: net1
        vendor: Tacker firewall

We also have another configuration yaml template with some firewall rules of OpenWRT.

tosca-config-openwrt-firewall.yaml [3]

vdus:
  VDU1:
    config:
      firewall: |
        package firewall
        config defaults
            option syn_flood '1'
            option input 'ACCEPT'
            option output 'ACCEPT'
            option forward 'REJECT'
        config zone
            option name 'lan'
            list network 'lan'
            option input 'ACCEPT'
            option output 'ACCEPT'
            option forward 'ACCEPT'
        config zone
            option name 'wan'
            list network 'wan'
            list network 'wan6'
            option input 'REJECT'
            option output 'ACCEPT'
            option forward 'REJECT'
            option masq '1'
            option mtu_fix '1'
        config forwarding
            option src 'lan'
            option dest 'wan'
        config rule
            option name 'Allow-DHCP-Renew'
            option src 'wan'
            option proto 'udp'
            option dest_port '68'
            option target 'ACCEPT'
            option family 'ipv4'
        config rule
            option name 'Allow-Ping'
            option src 'wan'
            option proto 'icmp'
            option icmp_type 'echo-request'
            option family 'ipv4'
            option target 'ACCEPT'
        config rule
            option name 'Allow-IGMP'
            option src 'wan'
            option proto 'igmp'
            option family 'ipv4'
            option target 'ACCEPT'
        config rule
            option name 'Allow-DHCPv6'
            option src 'wan'
            option proto 'udp'
            option src_ip 'fe80::/10'
            option src_port '547'
            option dest_ip 'fe80::/10'
            option dest_port '546'
            option family 'ipv6'
            option target 'ACCEPT'
        config rule
            option name 'Allow-MLD'
            option src 'wan'
            option proto 'icmp'
            option src_ip 'fe80::/10'
            list icmp_type '130/0'
            list icmp_type '131/0'
            list icmp_type '132/0'
            list icmp_type '143/0'
            option family 'ipv6'
            option target 'ACCEPT'
        config rule
            option name 'Allow-ICMPv6-Input'
            option src 'wan'
            option proto 'icmp'
            list icmp_type 'echo-request'
            list icmp_type 'echo-reply'
            list icmp_type 'destination-unreachable'
            list icmp_type 'packet-too-big'
            list icmp_type 'time-exceeded'
            list icmp_type 'bad-header'
            list icmp_type 'unknown-header-type'
            list icmp_type 'router-solicitation'
            list icmp_type 'neighbour-solicitation'
            list icmp_type 'router-advertisement'
            list icmp_type 'neighbour-advertisement'
            option limit '190/sec'
            option family 'ipv6'
            option target 'REJECT'

In this template file, we specify the mgmt_driver: openwrt which means this VNFD is managed by openwrt driver [4]. This driver can inject firewall rules which defined in VNFD into OpenWRT instance by using SSH protocol. We can run**cat /etc/config/firewall** to confirm the firewall rules if inject succeed.

3.Create a sample vnfd:

tacker vnfd-create --vnfd-file tosca-vnfd-openwrt.yaml <VNFD_NAME>

4.Create a VNF:

tacker vnf-create --vnfd-name <VNFD_NAME> \
                  --config-file tosca-config-openwrt-firewall.yaml <NAME>

5.Check the status:

tacker vnf-list
tacker vnf-show <VNF_ID>

We can replace the firewall rules configuration file with tosca-config-openwrt-vrouter.yaml [5], tosca-config-openwrt-dnsmasq.yaml [6], or tosca-config-openwrt-qos.yaml [7] to deploy the router, DHCP, DNS, or QoS VNFs. The openwrt VNFM management driver will do the same way to inject the desired service rules into the OpenWRT instance. You can also do the same to check if the rules are injected successful: cat /etc/config/network to check vrouter, cat /etc/config/dhcp to check DHCP and DNS, and cat /etc/config/qos to check the QoS rules.

6.Notes 6.1.OpenWRT user and password The user account is ‘root’ and password is ‘’, which means there is no password for root account.

6.2.Procedure to customize the OpenWRT image The OpenWRT is modified based on KVM OpenWRT 15.05.1 to be suitable forTacker. The procedure is following as below:

cd ~
wget https://archive.openwrt.org/chaos_calmer/15.05.1/x86/kvm_guest/openwrt-15.05.1-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img.gz \
        -O openwrt-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img.gz
gunzip openwrt-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img.gz

mkdir -p imgroot

sudo kpartx -av openwrt-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img

# Replace the loopXp2 with the result of above command, e.g., loop0p2
sudo mount -o loop /dev/mapper/loopXp2 imgroot
sudo chroot imgroot /bin/ash

# Set password of this image to blank, type follow command and then enter two times
passwd

# Set DHCP for the network of OpenWRT so that the VNF can be ping
uci set network.lan.proto=dhcp; uci commit
exit

sudo umount imgroot
sudo kpartx -dv openwrt-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img

Footnotes

[1]https://anda.ssu.ac.kr/~openwrt/openwrt-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img.gz
[2]https://github.com/openstack/tacker/blob/master/samples/tosca-templates/vnfd/tosca-vnfd-openwrt.yaml
[3]https://github.com/openstack/tacker/blob/master/samples/tosca-templates/vnfd/tosca-config-openwrt-firewall.yaml
[4]https://github.com/openstack/tacker/blob/master/tacker/vnfm/mgmt_drivers/openwrt/openwrt.py
[5]https://github.com/openstack/tacker/blob/master/samples/tosca-templates/vnfd/tosca-config-openwrt-vrouter.yaml
[6]https://github.com/openstack/tacker/blob/master/samples/tosca-templates/vnfd/tosca-config-openwrt-dnsmasq.yaml
[7]https://github.com/openstack/tacker/blob/master/samples/tosca-templates/vnfd/tosca-config-openwrt-qos.yaml
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