Deploying with IPSec

Deploying with IPSec

As of the Queens release, it is possible to encrypt communications within the internal network by setting up IPSec tunnels configured by TripleO.

There are several options that TripleO provides deployers whose requirements call for encrypting everything in the network. For example, TLS Everywhere has been supported since the Pike release. This method requires the deployer to procure a CA server on a separate node. FreeIPA is recommended for this.

However, there are cases where a deployers authorized CA does not have an interface that can automatically request certificates. Fuirthermore, it may not be possible to add another node to the network for various other reasons. For these cases, IPSec is a viable, alternative solution.

Note

For more information on TLS Everywhere, please see TLS everywhere for the overcloud.

IPSec thus, provides an alternative to TLS Everywhere. With IPSec the encryption happens on the IP layer, and not over TCP (as happens in TLS). As a result, the services will communicate with each other over standard ‘http’, and not actually know that the underlying traffic is being encrypted. This means that the services do not require any extra configuration.

Solution Overview

The current IPSec solution relies on Libreswan, which is already available in RHEL and CentOS, and is driven and configured via Ansible.

There are two types of tunnels configured in the overcloud:

  • node-to-node tunnels: These tunnels are a simple 1-to-1 tunnel between the ip addresses of two nodes on the same network. This results in a tunnel to each node in the overcloud for each network that the node is connected to.
  • Virtual IP tunnels: These are tunnels from each Virtual IP address and each node that can contact to them. The node hosting the VIP will open a tunnel for any host in the specific network that can properly authenticate. This makes the configuration simpler, allows for easier scaling, and assists deployers to securely communicate with the Virtual IP from hosts or services that are not necessarily managed by TripleO.

Authentication is currently done via a Pre-Shared Key (PSK) which all the nodes share. However, future iterations will add more authentication methods to the deployment.

Currently, the default encryption method is AES using GCM with a block size of 128 bits. Changing this default will be talked about in a further section.

To handle the moving of a Virtual IP from one node to another (VIP failover), we also deploy a pacemaker resource agent per VIP. This resource agent is in charge of creating the tunnel when the VIP is set in a certain node, and removing the tunnel when it moves to another node.

Note

One important thing to note is that we set tunnels for every network except the control plane network. The reason for this is that in our testing, setting up tunnels for this network cuts of the communication between the overcloud nodes and the undercloud. We thus rely on the fact that Ansible uses SSH to communicate with the overcloud nodes, thus, still giving the deployment secure communications.

Deployment

Note

Please note that the IPSec deployment depends on Ansible being used for the overcloud deployment. For more information on this, please see Deploying with Ansible

Note

Also note that the IPSec deployment assumes that you’re using network isolation. For more information on this, please see Configuring Network Isolation

To enable IPSec tunnels for the overcloud, you need to use the following environment file:

/usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ipsec.yaml

With this, your deployment command will similar to this:

openstack overcloud deploy \
    ...
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/network-isolation.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/templates/network-environment.yaml \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/config-download-environment.yaml \
    --config-download \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ipsec.yaml

To change the default encryption algorithm, you can use an environment file that looks as follows:

parameter_defaults:
  IpsecVars:
    ipsec_algorithm: 'aes_gcm256-null'

The IpsecVars option is able to change any parameter in the tripleo-ipsec ansible role.

Note

For more information on the algorithms that Libreswan suppports, please check the Libreswan documentation

Note

For more information on the available parameters, check the README file in the tripleo-ipsec repository.

Verification

To verify that the IPSec tunnels were setup correctly after the overcloud deployment is done, you’ll need to do several things:

  • Log into each node

  • In each node, check the output of ipsec status with sudo or root privileges. This will show you the status of all the tunnels that are set up in the node.

    • The line starting with “Total IPsec connections” should show that there are active connections.

    • The Security Associations should be all authenticated:

      000 IKE SAs: total(23), half-open(0), open(0), authenticated(23), anonymous(0)
      000 IPsec SAs: total(37), authenticated(37), anonymous(0)
      

      Note that this number will vary depending on the number of networks and nodes you have.

  • The configuration files generated can be found in the /etc/ipsec.d directory.

    • They conveniently all start with the prefix overcloud- and you could list them with the following command:

      ls /etc/ipsec.d/overcloud-*.conf
      
    • The PSKs can be found with the following command:

      ls /etc/ipsec.d/overcloud-*.secrets
      
    • You can find the connection names from the *.conf files.

    • To view the status of a certain connection, you can use the aforementioned ipsec status command, and filter the result, searching for the specific connection name. For instance, in the node that’s hosting the Internal API VIP, you can view the status of the tunnels for that VIP with the following command:

      ipsec status | grep overcloud-internal_api-vip-tunnel
      
  • To view the status of the resource agents, you can use pcs status.

    • The IPSEC-related agents will have a name with the tripleo-ipsec prefix.
    • Note that the resource agents for the tunnels are collocated with the IP resource agents. This is enforced through a collocation rule in pacemaker. You can verify this by running the pcs constraint command.

Note

To get further explanations for understanding the output of the ipsec status command, you can read the Libreswan wiki entry on the subject.

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