Deploying Overcloud with L3 routed networking

Deploying Overcloud with L3 routed networking

Layer 3 Routed spine and leaf architectures is gaining in popularity due to the benefits, such as high-performance, increased scalability and reduced failure domains.

The below diagram is an example L3 routed Clos architecture. In this example each server is connected to top-of-rack leaf switches. Each leaf switch is attached to each spine switch. Within each rack, all servers share a layer 2 domain. The layer 2 network segments are local to the rack. Layer 3 routing via the spine switches permits East-West traffic between the racks:

../../_images/spine_and_leaf.svg

Note

Typically Dynamic Routing is implemented in such an architecture. Often also ECMP (Equal-cost multi-path routing) and BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) are used to provide non-blocking forwarding and fast convergence times in case of failures. Configuration of the underlying network architecture is not in the scope of this document.

Layer 3 routed Requirements

For TripleO to deploy the overcloud on a network with a layer 3 routed architecture the following requirements must be met:

  • Layer 3 routing: The network infrastructure must have routing configured to enable traffic between the different layer 2 segments. This can be statically or dynamically configured.

  • DHCP-Relay: Each layer 2 segment that is not local to the undercloud must provide dhcp-relay. DHCP requests must be forwarded to the Undercloud on the provisioning network segment where the undercloud is connected.

    Note

    The undercloud uses two DHCP servers. One for baremetal node introspection, and another for deploying overcloud nodes.

    Make sure to read DHCP relay configuration to understand the requirements when configuring dhcp-relay.

Layer 3 routed Limitations

  • Some roles, such as the Controller role, use virtual IP addresses and clustering. The mechanism behind this functionality requires layer-2 network connectivity between these nodes. These nodes must all be placed within the same leaf.

  • Similar restrictions apply to networker nodes. The Network service implements highly-available default paths in the network using Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP). Since VRRP uses a virtual router ip address, master and backup nodes must be connected to the same L2 network segment.

  • When using tenant or provider networks with VLAN segmentation, the particular VLANs used must be shared between all networker and compute nodes.

    Note

    It is possible to configure the Network service with multiple sets of networker nodes. Each set would share routes for their networks, and VRRP would be used within each set of networker nodes to provide highly-available default paths. In such configuration all networker nodes sharing networks must be on the same L2 network segment.

Create undercloud configuration

To deploy the overcloud on a L3 routed architecture the undercloud needs to be configured with multiple neutron network segments and subnets on the ctlplane network.

  1. In the [DEFAULT] section of undercloud.conf enable the routed networks feature by setting enable_routed_networks to true. For example:

    enable_routed_networks = true
    
  2. In the [DEFAULT] section of undercloud.conf add a comma separated list of control plane subnets. Define one subnet for each layer 2 segment in the routed spine and leaf. For example:

    subnets = leaf0,leaf1,leaf2
    
  3. In the [DEFAULT] section of undercloud.conf specify the subnet that is associated with the physical layer 2 segment that is local to the undercloud. For example:

    local_subnet = leaf0
    
  4. For each of the control plane subnets specified in [DEFAULT]\subnets add an additional section in undercloud.conf, for example:

    [leaf0]
    cidr = 192.168.10.0/24
    dhcp_start = 192.168.10.10
    dhcp_end = 192.168.10.90
    inspection_iprange = 192.168.10.100,192.168.10.190
    gateway = 192.168.10.1
    masquerade = False
    
    [leaf1]
    cidr = 192.168.11.0/24
    dhcp_start = 192.168.11.10
    dhcp_end = 192.168.11.90
    inspection_iprange = 192.168.11.100,192.168.11.190
    gateway = 192.168.11.1
    masquerade = False
    
    [leaf2]
    cidr = 192.168.12.0/24
    dhcp_start = 192.168.12.10
    dhcp_end = 192.168.12.90
    inspection_iprange = 192.168.12.100,192.168.12.190
    gateway = 192.168.12.1
    masquerade = False
    

Install the undercloud

Once the undercloud.conf is updated with the desired configuration, install the undercloud by running the following command:

$ openstack undercloud install

Once the undercloud is installed complete the post-install tasks such as uploading images and registering baremetal nodes. (For addition details regarding the post-install tasks, see Basic Deployment (CLI).)

DHCP relay configuration

The TripleO Undercloud uses two DHCP servers on the provisioning network, one for introspection and another one for provisioning. When configuring dhcp-relay make sure that DHCP requests are forwarded to both DHCP servers on the Undercloud.

For devices that support it, UDP broadcast can be used to relay DHCP requests to the L2 network segment where the Undercloud provisioning network is connected. Alternatively UDP unicast can be can be used, in this case DHCP requests are relayed to specific ip addresses.

Note

Configuration of dhcp-relay on specific devices types is beyond the scope of this document. As a reference DHCP relay configuration (Example) using the implementation in ISC DHCP software is available below. (Please refer to manual page dhcrelay(8) for further details on how to use this implementation.)

Broadcast DHCP relay

DHCP requests are relayed onto the L2 network segment where the DHCP server(s) reside using UDP broadcast traffic. All devices on the network segment will receive the broadcast traffic. When using UDP broadcast both DHCP servers on the Undercloud will receive the relayed DHCP request.

Depending on implementation this is typically configured by specifying either interface or ip network address:

  • Interface: Specifying an interface connected to the L2 network segment where the DHCP requests will be relayed.
  • IP network address: Specifying the network address of the IP network where the DHCP request will be relayed.

Unicast DHCP relay

DHCP requests are relayed to specific DHCP servers using UDP unicast traffic. When using UDP unicast the device configured to provide dhcp-relay must be configured to relay DHCP requests to both the IP address assigned to the interface used for introspection on the Undercloud and the IP address of the network namespace created by the Network service to host the DHCP service for the ctlplane network.

The interface used for introspection is the one defined as inspection_interface in undercloud.conf.

Note

It is common to use the br-ctlplane interface for introspection, the IP address defined as local_ip in undercloud.conf will be on the br-ctlplane interface.

The IP address allocated to the neutron DHCP namespace will typically be the first address available in the IP range configured for the local_subnet in undercloud.conf. (The first address in the IP range is the one defined as dhcp_start in the configuration.) For example: 172.20.0.10 would be the IP address when the following configuration is used:

[DEFAULT]
local_subnet = leaf0
subnets = leaf0,leaf1,leaf2

[leaf0]
cidr = 172.20.0.0/26
dhcp_start = 172.20.0.10
dhcp_end = 172.20.0.19
inspection_iprange = 172.20.0.20,172.20.0.29
gateway = 172.20.0.62
masquerade = False

Warning

The IP address for the DHCP namespace is automatically allocated, it will in most cases be the first address in the IP range, but do make sure to verify that this is the case by running the following commands on the Undercloud:

$ openstack port list --device-owner network:dhcp -c "Fixed IP Addresses"
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Fixed IP Addresses                                                         |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ip_address='172.20.0.10', subnet_id='7526fbe3-f52a-4b39-a828-ec59f4ed12b2' |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
$ openstack subnet show 7526fbe3-f52a-4b39-a828-ec59f4ed12b2 -c name
+-------+--------+
| Field | Value  |
+-------+--------+
| name  | leaf0  |
+-------+--------+

DHCP relay configuration (Example)

In the following examples dhcrelay from ISC DHCP software is started using configuration parameters to relay incoming DHCP request on interfaces: eth1, eth2 and eth3. The undercloud DHCP servers are on the network segment connected to the eth0 interface. The DHCP server used for introspection is listening on ip address: 172.20.0.1 and the DHCP server used for provisioning is listening on ip address: 172.20.0.10.

Example, dhcrelay version 4.2.5 (in CentOS 7):

dhcrelay -d --no-pid 172.20.0.10 172.20.0.1 \
         -i eth0 -i eth1 -i eth2 -i eth3

Example, dhcrelay version 4.3.6 (in Fedora 28):

dhcrelay -d --no-pid 172.20.0.10 172.20.0.1 \
         -iu eth0 -id eth1 -id eth2 -id eth3

Map bare metal node ports to control plane network segments

To enable deployment onto a L3 routed network the baremetal ports must have its physical_network field configured. Each baremetal port is associated with a baremetal node in the Bare Metal service. The physical network names are the ones used in the subnets option in the undercloud configuration.

Note

The physical network name of the subnet specified as local_subnet in undercloud.conf is special. It is always named ctlplane.

  1. Make sure the baremetal nodes are in one of the following states: enroll, or manageable. If the baremetal node is not in one of these states the command used to set the physical_network property on the baremetal port will fail. (For additional details regarding node states see Bare Metal Node States.)

    To set all nodes to manageable state run the following command:

    for node in $(openstack baremetal node list -f value -c Name); do \
        openstack baremetal node manage $node --wait; done
    
  2. Use openstack baremetal port list --node <node-uuid> command to find out which baremetal ports are associated with which baremetal node. Then set the physical-network for the ports.

    In the example below three subnets where defined in the configuration, leaf0, leaf1 and leaf2. Notice that the local_subnet is leaf0, since the physical network for the local_subnet is always ctlplane the baremetal port connected to leaf0 use ctlplane. The remaining ports use the leafX names:

    $ openstack baremetal port set --physical-network ctlplane <port-uuid>
    
    $ openstack baremetal port set --physical-network leaf1 <port-uuid>
    $ openstack baremetal port set --physical-network leaf2 <port-uuid>
    $ openstack baremetal port set --physical-network leaf2 <port-uuid>
    
  3. Make sure the nodes are in available state before deploying the overcloud:

    $ openstack overcloud node provide --all-manageable
    

Create network data with multi-subnet networks

Network data (network_data.yaml) is used to define the networks in the deployment. Each network has a base subnet defined by the network’s properties: ip_subnet, allocation_pools, gateway_ip, vlan etc.

With support for routed networks (multiple subnets per network) the schema for network’s was extended with the subnets property, a map of one or more additional subnets associated with the network. subnets property example:

subnets:
  <subnet_name>:
    vlan: '<vlan_id>'
    ip_subnet: '<network_address>/<prefix>'
    allocation_pools: [{'start': '<start_address>', 'end': '<end_address>'}]
    gateway_ip: '<router_ip_address>'

Note

The name of the base subnet is name_lower with the suffix _subnet appended. For example, the base subnet on the InternalApi network will be named internal_api_subnet. This name is used when setting the subnet for a role to use the base subnet. (See Create roles specific to each leaf (layer 2 segment))

Full networks data example:

- name: External
  vip: true
  name_lower: external
  vlan: 100
  ip_subnet: '10.0.0.0/24'
  allocation_pools: [{'start': '10.0.0.4', 'end': '10.0.0.99'}]
  gateway_ip: '10.0.0.254'
- name: InternalApi
  name_lower: internal_api
  vip: true
  vlan: 10
  ip_subnet: '172.17.0.0/24'
  allocation_pools: [{'start': '172.17.0.10', 'end': '172.17.0.250'}]
  gateway_ip: '172.17.0.254'
  subnets:
    internal_api_leaf1:
      vlan: 11
      ip_subnet: '172.17.1.0/24'
      allocation_pools: [{'start': '172.17.1.10', 'end': '172.17.1.250'}]
      gateway_ip: '172.17.1.254'
- name: Storage
  vip: true
  vlan: 20
  name_lower: storage
  ip_subnet: '172.18.0.0/24'
  allocation_pools: [{'start': '172.18.0.10', 'end': '172.18.0.250'}]
  gateway_ip: '172.18.0.254'
  subnets:
    storage_leaf1:
      vlan: 21
      ip_subnet: '172.18.1.0/24'
      allocation_pools: [{'start': '172.18.1.10', 'end': '172.18.1.250'}]
      gateway_ip: '172.18.1.254'
- name: StorageMgmt
  name_lower: storage_mgmt
  vip: true
  vlan: 30
  ip_subnet: '172.19.0.0/24'
  allocation_pools: [{'start': '172.19.0.10', 'end': '172.19.0.250'}]
  gateway_ip: '172.19.0.254'
  subnets:
    storage_mgmt_leaf1:
      vlan: 31
      ip_subnet: '172.19.1.0/24'
      allocation_pools: [{'start': '172.19.1.10', 'end': '172.19.1.250'}]
      gateway_ip: '172.19.1.254'
- name: Tenant
  vip: false  # Tenant network does not use VIPs
  name_lower: tenant
  vlan: 40
  ip_subnet: '172.16.0.0/24'
  allocation_pools: [{'start': '172.16.0.10', 'end': '172.16.0.250'}]
  gateway_ip: '172.16.0.254'
  subnets:
    tenant_leaf1:
      vlan: 41
      ip_subnet: '172.16.1.0/24'
      allocation_pools: [{'start': '172.16.1.10', 'end': '172.16.1.250'}]
      gateway_ip: '172.16.1.254'

Create roles specific to each leaf (layer 2 segment)

To aid in scheduling and to allow override of leaf specific parameters in tripleo-heat-templates create new roles for each l2 leaf. In the networks property for each role, add the networks and associated subnet.

The following is an example with one controller role, and two compute roles. Please refer to Deploying with Custom Roles for details on configuring custom roles.

Example roles_data below. (The list of default services has been left out.)

#############################################################################
# Role: Controller                                                          #
#############################################################################
- name: Controller
  description: |
    Controller role that has all the controler services loaded and handles
    Database, Messaging and Network functions.
  CountDefault: 1
  tags:
    - primary
    - controller
  networks:
    External:
      subnet: external_subnet
    InternalApi:
      subnet: internal_api_subnet
    Storage:
      subnet: storage_subnet
    StorageMgmt:
      subnet: storage_mgmt_subnet
    Tenant:
      subnet: tenant_subnet
  HostnameFormatDefault: '%stackname%-controller-%index%'
  ServicesDefault:
    - OS::TripleO::Services::AodhApi
    - OS::TripleO::Services:: [...]
#############################################################################
# Role: ComputeLeaf0                                                        #
#############################################################################
- name: ComputeLeaf0
  description: |
    Basic Compute Node role
  CountDefault: 1
  networks:
    InternalApi:
      subnet: internal_api_subnet
    Tenant:
      subnet: tenant_subnet
    Storage:
      subnet: storage_subnet
  HostnameFormatDefault: '%stackname%-compute-leaf0-%index%'
  disable_upgrade_deployment: True
  ServicesDefault:
    - OS::TripleO::Services::AuditD
    - OS::TripleO::Services:: [...]
#############################################################################
# Role: ComputeLeaf1                                                        #
#############################################################################
- name: ComputeLeaf1
  description: |
    Basic Compute Node role
  CountDefault: 1
  networks:
    InternalApi:
      subnet: internal_api_leaf1
    Tenant:
      subnet: tenant_leaf1
    Storage:
      subnet: storage_leaf1
  HostnameFormatDefault: '%stackname%-compute-leaf1-%index%'
  disable_upgrade_deployment: True
  ServicesDefault:
    - OS::TripleO::Services::AuditD
    - OS::TripleO::Services:: [...]

Configure node placement

Use node placement to map the baremetal nodes to roles, with each role using a different set of local layer 2 segments. Please refer to Controlling Node Placement and IP Assignment for details on how to configure node placement.

Add role specific configuration to parameter_defaults

In TripleO templates role specific parameters are defined using variables. One of the variables used is {{role.name}}. The templates have parameters such as {{role.name}}Count, Overcloud{{role.name}}Flavor, {{role.name}}ControlPlaneSubnet and many more. This enables per-role values for these parameters.

Before deploying the overcloud create an environment file (The examples in this document uses node_data.yaml for this.) that contains the required overrides. In the example below there are parameter overrides to specify the Count, Flavor and ControlPlaneSubnet to use for the following roles:

  • Controller
  • ComputeLeaf0
  • ComputeLeaf1

Parameter override example:

parameter_defaults:
  OvercloudComputeLeaf0Flavor: compute-leaf0
  OvercloudComputeLeaf1Flavor: compute-leaf1
  ControllerCount: 3
  ComputeLeaf0Count: 5
  ComputeLeaf1Count: 5
  ControllerControlPlaneSubnet: leaf0
  ComputeLeaf0ControlPlaneSubnet: leaf0
  ComputeLeaf1ControlPlaneSubnet: leaf1

Network configuration templates

Network configuration templates are dynamically generated, but depending on the hardware configuration, the sample configurations might not be an option. If this is the case, the dynamically generated network configuration templates can be generated manually providing a good starting point for manual customization.

Use the process-templates.py tool to generate network config templates for all roles. For example:

$ /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/tools/process-templates.py \
    -p /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates \
    -r /home/stack/roles_data.yaml \
    -n /home/stack/network_data_subnets_routed.yaml \
    -o /home/stack/processed_templates

The generated example templates for each role can now be found under the /home/stack/processed_templates/network/config/ directory:

/home/stack/processed_templates/network/config/
├── bond-with-vlans
│   ├── computeleaf0.yaml
│   ├── computeleaf1.yaml
│   ├── controller-no-external.yaml
│   ├── controller-v6.yaml
│   ├── controller.yaml
│   └── README.md
├── multiple-nics
│   ├── compute-dvr.yaml
│   ├── computeleaf0.yaml
│   ├── computeleaf1.yaml
│   ├── controller-v6.yaml
│   ├── controller.yaml
│   └── README.md
├── single-nic-linux-bridge-vlans
│   ├── computeleaf0.yaml
│   ├── computeleaf1.yaml
│   ├── controller-v6.yaml
│   ├── controller.yaml
│   └── README.md
└── single-nic-vlans
    ├── computeleaf0.yaml
    ├── computeleaf1.yaml
    ├── controller-no-external.yaml
    ├── controller-v6.yaml
    ├── controller.yaml
    └── README.md

Inspect the generated template files to find out which sample is most similar to the specific deployments hardware configuration. Make copies, and edit the network configuration templates as needed.

Note

If compute nodes (or some other roles) in different leaf’s have the same hardware configuration and network needs, a single network configuration template can be used for both roles. For example the computeleaf0.yaml template could be copied as compute.yaml, and be used for both compute roles (computeleaf0 and computeleaf1).

Create a environement file (network-environment-overrides.yaml) with resource_registry overrides to specify the network configuration templates to use. For example:

resource_registry:
  # Port assignments for the Controller
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Net::SoftwareConfig:
    /home/stack/templates/controller.yaml
  # Port assignments for the ComputeLeaf0
  OS::TripleO::ComputeLeaf0::Net::SoftwareConfig:
    /home/stack/templates/compute.yaml
  # Port assignments for the ComputeLeaf1
  OS::TripleO::ComputeLeaf1::Net::SoftwareConfig:
    /home/stack/templates/compute.yaml

Virtual IP addresses (VIPs)

If the a controller role which is hosting VIP’s (Virtual IP addresses) is not using the base subnet of one or more networks, additional overrides to the VipSubnetMap is required to ensure VIP’s are created on the subnet associated with the L2 network segment the controller nodes is connected to.

Example, specifying which subnet’s to use when creating VIP’s for the different networks:

parameter_defaults:
  VipSubnetMap:
    ctlplane: leaf1
    redis: internal_api_leaf1
    InternalApi: internal_api_leaf1
    Storage: storage_leaf1
    StorageMgmt: storage_mgmt_leaf1

In this document the ctlplane subnet for the Controller is leaf0. To set which subnet on the ctlplane network that will be used for cluster VIP’s (Virtual IP addresses) the VipSubnetMap parameter must be overridden in an environment file. For example add the following to network-environment-overrides.yaml:

parameter_defaults:
  VipSubnetMap:
    ctlplane: leaf0

Deploy the overcloud

To deploy the overcloud, run the openstack overcloud deploy specifying the roles data file, the network data file and environment files. For example:

$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -n /home/stack/templates/network_data_subnets_routed.yaml
    -r /home/stack/templates/roles_data.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/environments/node_data.yaml \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-tempaltes/environments/network-isolation.yaml \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-tempaltes/environments/network-environment.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/environments/network-environment-overrides.yaml

Note

Remember to include other environment files that you might want for configuration of the overcloud.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Except where otherwise noted, this document is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. See all OpenStack Legal Documents.