Configuring PXE and iPXE

Configuring PXE and iPXE

DHCP server setup

A DHCP server is required by PXE/iPXE client. You need to follow steps below.

  1. Set the [dhcp]/dhcp_provider to neutron in the Bare Metal Service’s configuration file (/etc/ironic/ironic.conf):

    Note

    Refer Configure tenant networks for details. The dhcp_provider configuration is already set by the configuration defaults, and when you create subnet, DHCP is also enabled if you do not add any dhcp options at “openstack subnet create” command.

  2. Enable DHCP in the subnet of PXE network.

  3. Set the ip address range in the subnet for DHCP.

    Note

    Refer Configure the Networking service for bare metal provisioning for details about the two precedent steps.

  4. Connect the openstack DHCP agent to the external network through the OVS bridges and the interface eth2.

    Note

    Refer Configure the Networking service for bare metal provisioning for details. You do not require this part if br-int, br-eth2 and eth2 are already connected.

  5. Configure the host ip at br-eth2. If it locates at eth2, do below:

    ip addr del 192.168.2.10/24 dev eth2
    ip addr add 192.168.2.10/24 dev br-eth2
    

    Note

    Replace eth2 with the interface on the network node which you are using to connect to the Bare Metal service.

TFTP server setup

In order to deploy instances via PXE, a TFTP server needs to be set up on the Bare Metal service nodes which run the ironic-conductor.

  1. Make sure the tftp root directory exist and can be written to by the user the ironic-conductor is running as. For example:

    sudo mkdir -p /tftpboot
    sudo chown -R ironic /tftpboot
    
  2. Install tftp server:

    Ubuntu:

    sudo apt-get install xinetd tftpd-hpa
    

    RHEL7/CentOS7:

    sudo yum install tftp-server xinetd
    

    Fedora:

    sudo dnf install tftp-server xinetd
    

    SUSE:

    sudo zypper install tftp xinetd
    
  3. Using xinetd to provide a tftp server setup to serve /tftpboot. Create or edit /etc/xinetd.d/tftp as below:

    service tftp
    {
      protocol        = udp
      port            = 69
      socket_type     = dgram
      wait            = yes
      user            = root
      server          = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd
      server_args     = -v -v -v -v -v --map-file /tftpboot/map-file /tftpboot
      disable         = no
      # This is a workaround for Fedora, where TFTP will listen only on
      # IPv6 endpoint, if IPv4 flag is not used.
      flags           = IPv4
    }
    

    and restart the xinetd service:

    Ubuntu:

    sudo service xinetd restart
    

    Fedora/RHEL7/CentOS7/SUSE:

    sudo systemctl restart xinetd
    

    Note

    In certain environments the network’s MTU may cause TFTP UDP packets to get fragmented. Certain PXE firmwares struggle to reconstruct the fragmented packets which can cause significant slow down or even prevent the server from PXE booting. In order to avoid this, TFTPd provides an option to limit the packet size so that it they do not get fragmented. To set this additional option in the server_args above:

    --blocksize <MAX MTU minus 32>
    
  4. Create a map file in the tftp boot directory (/tftpboot):

    echo 're ^(/tftpboot/) /tftpboot/\2' > /tftpboot/map-file
    echo 're ^/tftpboot/ /tftpboot/' >> /tftpboot/map-file
    echo 're ^(^/) /tftpboot/\1' >> /tftpboot/map-file
    echo 're ^([^/]) /tftpboot/\1' >> /tftpboot/map-file
    

UEFI PXE - Grub setup

In order to deploy instances with PXE on bare metal nodes which support UEFI, perform these additional steps on the ironic conductor node to configure the PXE UEFI environment.

  1. Install Grub2 and shim packages:

    Ubuntu (16.04LTS and later):

    sudo apt-get install grub-efi-amd64-signed shim-signed
    

    RHEL7/CentOS7:

    sudo yum install grub2-efi shim
    

    Fedora:

    sudo dnf install grub2-efi shim
    

    SUSE:

    sudo zypper install grub2-x86_64-efi shim
    
  2. Copy grub and shim boot loader images to /tftpboot directory:

    Ubuntu (16.04LTS and later):

    sudo cp /usr/lib/shim/shim.efi.signed /tftpboot/bootx64.efi
    sudo cp /usr/lib/grub/x86_64-efi-signed/grubnetx64.efi.signed /tftpboot/grubx64.efi
    

    Fedora:

    sudo cp /boot/efi/EFI/fedora/shim.efi /tftpboot/bootx64.efi
    sudo cp /boot/efi/EFI/fedora/grubx64.efi /tftpboot/grubx64.efi
    

    RHEL7/CentOS7:

    sudo cp /boot/efi/EFI/centos/shim.efi /tftpboot/bootx64.efi
    sudo cp /boot/efi/EFI/centos/grubx64.efi /tftpboot/grubx64.efi
    

    SUSE:

    sudo cp /usr/lib64/efi/shim.efi /tftpboot/bootx64.efi
    sudo cp /usr/lib/grub2/x86_64-efi/grub.efi /tftpboot/grubx64.efi
    
  3. Create master grub.cfg:

    Ubuntu: Create grub.cfg under /tftpboot/grub directory:

    GRUB_DIR=/tftpboot/grub
    

    Fedora: Create grub.cfg under /tftpboot/EFI/fedora directory:

    GRUB_DIR=/tftpboot/EFI/fedora
    

    RHEL7/CentOS7: Create grub.cfg under /tftpboot/EFI/centos directory:

    GRUB_DIR=/tftpboot/EFI/centos
    

    SUSE: Create grub.cfg under /tftpboot/boot/grub directory:

    GRUB_DIR=/tftpboot/boot/grub
    

    Create directory GRUB_DIR:

    sudo mkdir -p $GRUB_DIR
    

    This file is used to redirect grub to baremetal node specific config file. It redirects it to specific grub config file based on DHCP IP assigned to baremetal node.

    set default=master
    set timeout=5
    set hidden_timeout_quiet=false
    
    menuentry "master"  {
    configfile /tftpboot/$net_default_mac.conf
    }
    

    Change the permission of grub.cfg:

    sudo chmod 644 $GRUB_DIR/grub.cfg
    
  4. Update the bare metal node with boot_mode:uefi capability in node’s properties field. See Boot mode support for details.

  5. Make sure that bare metal node is configured to boot in UEFI boot mode and boot device is set to network/pxe.

    Note

    Some drivers, e.g. ilo, irmc and redfish, support automatic setting of the boot mode during deployment. This step is not required for them. Please check Drivers, Hardware Types and Hardware Interfaces for information on whether your driver requires manual UEFI configuration.

Legacy BIOS - Syslinux setup

In order to deploy instances with PXE on bare metal using Legacy BIOS boot mode, perform these additional steps on the ironic conductor node.

  1. Install the syslinux package with the PXE boot images:

    Ubuntu (16.04LTS and later):

    sudo apt-get install syslinux-common pxelinux
    

    RHEL7/CentOS7:

    sudo yum install syslinux-tftpboot
    

    Fedora:

    sudo dnf install syslinux-tftpboot
    

    SUSE:

    sudo zypper install syslinux
    
  2. Copy the PXE image to /tftpboot. The PXE image might be found at 1:

    Ubuntu (16.04LTS and later):

    sudo cp /usr/lib/PXELINUX/pxelinux.0 /tftpboot
    

    RHEL7/CentOS7/SUSE:

    sudo cp /usr/share/syslinux/pxelinux.0 /tftpboot
    
  3. If whole disk images need to be deployed via PXE-netboot, copy the chain.c32 image to /tftpboot to support it:

    Ubuntu (16.04LTS and later):

    sudo cp /usr/lib/syslinux/modules/bios/chain.c32 /tftpboot
    

    Fedora:

    sudo cp /boot/extlinux/chain.c32 /tftpboot
    

    RHEL7/CentOS7/SUSE:

    sudo cp /usr/share/syslinux/chain.c32 /tftpboot/
    
  4. If the version of syslinux is greater than 4 we also need to make sure that we copy the library modules into the /tftpboot directory 2 1. For example, for Ubuntu run:

    sudo cp /usr/lib/syslinux/modules/*/ldlinux.* /tftpboot
    
  5. Update the bare metal node with boot_mode:bios capability in node’s properties field. See Boot mode support for details.

  6. Make sure that bare metal node is configured to boot in Legacy BIOS boot mode and boot device is set to network/pxe.

1(1,2)

On Fedora/RHEL the syslinux-tftpboot package already installs the library modules and PXE image at /tftpboot. If the TFTP server is configured to listen to a different directory you should copy the contents of /tftpboot to the configured directory

2

http://www.syslinux.org/wiki/index.php/Library_modules

iPXE setup

If you will be using iPXE to boot instead of PXE, iPXE needs to be set up on the Bare Metal service node(s) where ironic-conductor is running.

  1. Make sure these directories exist and can be written to by the user the ironic-conductor is running as. For example:

    sudo mkdir -p /tftpboot
    sudo mkdir -p /httpboot
    sudo chown -R ironic /tftpboot
    sudo chown -R ironic /httpboot
    
  2. Create a map file in the tftp boot directory (/tftpboot):

    echo 'r ^([^/]) /tftpboot/\1' > /tftpboot/map-file
    echo 'r ^(/tftpboot/) /tftpboot/\2' >> /tftpboot/map-file
    
  3. Set up TFTP and HTTP servers.

    These servers should be running and configured to use the local /tftpboot and /httpboot directories respectively, as their root directories. (Setting up these servers is outside the scope of this install guide.)

    These root directories need to be mounted locally to the ironic-conductor services, so that the services can access them.

    The Bare Metal service’s configuration file (/etc/ironic/ironic.conf) should be edited accordingly to specify the TFTP and HTTP root directories and server addresses. For example:

    [pxe]
    
    # Ironic compute node's tftp root path. (string value)
    tftp_root=/tftpboot
    
    # IP address of Ironic compute node's tftp server. (string
    # value)
    tftp_server=192.168.0.2
    
    [deploy]
    # Ironic compute node's http root path. (string value)
    http_root=/httpboot
    
    # Ironic compute node's HTTP server URL. Example:
    # http://192.1.2.3:8080 (string value)
    http_url=http://192.168.0.2:8080
    
  4. Install the iPXE package with the boot images:

    Ubuntu:

    apt-get install ipxe
    

    RHEL7/CentOS7:

    yum install ipxe-bootimgs
    

    Fedora:

    dnf install ipxe-bootimgs
    

    Note

    SUSE does not provide a package containing iPXE boot images. If you are using SUSE or if the packaged version of the iPXE boot image doesn’t work, you can download a prebuilt one from http://boot.ipxe.org or build one image from source, see http://ipxe.org/download for more information.

  5. Copy the iPXE boot image (undionly.kpxe for BIOS and ipxe.efi for UEFI) to /tftpboot. The binary might be found at:

    Ubuntu:

    cp /usr/lib/ipxe/{undionly.kpxe,ipxe.efi} /tftpboot
    

    Fedora/RHEL7/CentOS7:

    cp /usr/share/ipxe/{undionly.kpxe,ipxe.efi} /tftpboot
    
  6. Enable/Configure iPXE in the Bare Metal Service’s configuration file (/etc/ironic/ironic.conf):

    [pxe]
    
    # Enable iPXE boot. (boolean value)
    ipxe_enabled=True
    
    # Neutron bootfile DHCP parameter. (string value)
    pxe_bootfile_name=undionly.kpxe
    
    # Bootfile DHCP parameter for UEFI boot mode. (string value)
    uefi_pxe_bootfile_name=ipxe.efi
    
    # Template file for PXE configuration. (string value)
    pxe_config_template=$pybasedir/drivers/modules/ipxe_config.template
    
    # Template file for PXE configuration for UEFI boot loader.
    # (string value)
    uefi_pxe_config_template=$pybasedir/drivers/modules/ipxe_config.template
    

    Note

    The [pxe]ipxe_enabled option has been deprecated and will be removed in the T* development cycle. Users should instead consider use of the ipxe boot interface. The same default use of iPXE functionality can be achieved by setting the [DEFAULT]default_boot_interface option to ipxe.

  7. It is possible to configure the Bare Metal service in such a way that nodes will boot into the deploy image directly from Object Storage. Doing this avoids having to cache the images on the ironic-conductor host and serving them via the ironic-conductor’s HTTP server. This can be done if:

    1. the Image Service is used for image storage;

    2. the images in the Image Service are internally stored in Object Storage;

    3. the Object Storage supports generating temporary URLs for accessing objects stored in it. Both the OpenStack Swift and RADOS Gateway provide support for this.

    Configure this by setting the [pxe]/ipxe_use_swift configuration option to True as follows:

    [pxe]
    
    # Download deploy images directly from swift using temporary
    # URLs. If set to false (default), images are downloaded to
    # the ironic-conductor node and served over its local HTTP
    # server. Applicable only when 'ipxe_enabled' option is set to
    # true. (boolean value)
    ipxe_use_swift=True
    

    Although the HTTP server still has to be deployed and configured (as it will serve iPXE boot script and boot configuration files for nodes), such configuration will shift some load from ironic-conductor hosts to the Object Storage service which can be scaled horizontally.

    Note that when SSL is enabled on the Object Storage service you have to ensure that iPXE firmware on the nodes can indeed boot from generated temporary URLs that use HTTPS protocol.

  8. Restart the ironic-conductor process:

    Fedora/RHEL7/CentOS7/SUSE:

    sudo systemctl restart openstack-ironic-conductor
    

    Ubuntu:

    sudo service ironic-conductor restart
    

PXE multi-architecture setup

It is possible to deploy servers of different architecture by one conductor. To use this feature, architecture-specific boot and template files must be configured using the configuration options [pxe]pxe_bootfile_name_by_arch and [pxe]pxe_config_template_by_arch respectively, in the Bare Metal service’s configuration file (/etc/ironic/ironic.conf).

These two options are dictionary values; the key is the architecture and the value is the boot (or config template) file. A node’s cpu_arch property is used as the key to get the appropriate boot file and template file. If the node’s cpu_arch is not in the dictionary, the configuration options (in [pxe] group) pxe_bootfile_name, pxe_config_template, uefi_pxe_bootfile_name and uefi_pxe_config_template will be used instead.

In the following example, since ‘x86’ and ‘x86_64’ keys are not in the pxe_bootfile_name_by_arch or pxe_config_template_by_arch options, x86 and x86_64 nodes will be deployed by ‘pxelinux.0’ or ‘bootx64.efi’, depending on the node’s boot_mode capability (‘bios’ or ‘uefi’). However, aarch64 nodes will be deployed by ‘grubaa64.efi’, and ppc64 nodes by ‘bootppc64’:

[pxe]

# Bootfile DHCP parameter. (string value)
pxe_bootfile_name=pxelinux.0

# On ironic-conductor node, template file for PXE
# configuration. (string value)
pxe_config_template = $pybasedir/drivers/modules/pxe_config.template

# Bootfile DHCP parameter for UEFI boot mode. (string value)
uefi_pxe_bootfile_name=bootx64.efi

# On ironic-conductor node, template file for PXE
# configuration for UEFI boot loader. (string value)
uefi_pxe_config_template=$pybasedir/drivers/modules/pxe_grub_config.template

# Bootfile DHCP parameter per node architecture. (dict value)
pxe_bootfile_name_by_arch=aarch64:grubaa64.efi,ppc64:bootppc64

# On ironic-conductor node, template file for PXE
# configuration per node architecture. For example:
# aarch64:/opt/share/grubaa64_pxe_config.template (dict value)
pxe_config_template_by_arch=aarch64:pxe_grubaa64_config.template,ppc64:pxe_ppc64_config.template
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Except where otherwise noted, this document is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. See all OpenStack Legal Documents.