Database Migrations

Database Migrations

Starting with Newton, keystone supports upgrading both with and without downtime. In order to support this, there are three separate migration repositories (all under keystone/common/sql/) that match the three phases of an upgrade (schema expansion, data migration, and schema contraction):

expand_repo
For additive schema modifications and triggers to ensure data is kept in sync between the old and new schema until the point when there are no keystone instances running old code.
data_migration_repo
To ensure new tables/columns are fully populated with data from the old schema.
contract_repo
Run after all old code versions have been upgraded to running the new code, so remove any old schema columns/tables that are not used by the new version of the code. Drop any triggers added in the expand phase.

All migrations are required to have a migration script in each of these repos, each with the same version number (which is indicated by the first three digits of the name of the script, e.g. 003_add_X_table.py). If there is no work to do in a specific phase, then include a no-op migration to simply pass (in fact the 001 migration in each of these repositories is a no-op migration, so that can be used as a template).

Note

Since rolling upgrade support was added part way through the Newton cycle, some migrations had already been added to the legacy repository (keystone/common/sql/migrate_repo). This repository is now closed and no new migrations should be added (except for backporting of previous placeholders).

In order to support rolling upgrades, where two releases of keystone briefly operate side-by-side using the same database without downtime, each phase of the migration must adhere to following constraints:

These triggers should be removed in the contract phase. There are further restrictions as to what can and cannot be included in migration scripts in each phase:

Expand phase:

Only additive schema changes are allowed, such as new columns, tables, indices, and triggers.

Data insertion, modification, and removal is not allowed.

Triggers must be created to keep data in sync between the previous release and the next release. Data written by the previous release must be readable by both the previous release and the next release. Data written by the next release must be readable by both the next release and the previous release.

In cases it is not possible for triggers to maintain data integrity across multiple schemas, writing data should be forbidden using triggers.

Data Migration phase:

Data is allowed to be inserted, updated, and deleted.

No schema changes are allowed.

Contract phase:

Only contractive schema changes are allowed, such as dropping or altering columns, tables, indices, and triggers.

Data insertion, modification, and removal is not allowed.

Triggers created during the expand phase must be dropped.

For more information on writing individual migration scripts refer to SQLAlchemy-migrate.

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