Before running tests, you should have
tox installed and available in your
environment (in addition to the other external dependencies in
Setting up Keystone):
$ pip install tox
You may need to perform both the above operation and the next inside a
python virtualenv, or prefix the above command with
sudo, depending on
To execute the full suite of tests maintained within keystone, simply run:
This iterates over multiple configuration variations, and uses external projects to do light integration testing to verify the Identity API against other projects.
The first time you run
tox, it will take additional time to build
virtualenvs. You can later use the
-r option with
tox to rebuild
your virtualenv in a similar manner.
To run tests for one or more specific test environments (for example, the most
common configuration of Python 3.6 and PEP-8), list the environments with the
-e option, separated by spaces:
$ tox -e py36,pep8
Keystone dropped the support of python 2.7 in the Ussuri release of Openstack.
tox --listenvs to list all testing environments specified in keystone’s
pdb breakpoints with
testr normally doesn’t work
since the tests just fail with a
BdbQuit exception rather than stopping at
To capture breakpoints while running tests, use the
debug environment. The
following example uses the environment while invoking a specific test run.
$ tox -e debug keystone.tests.unit.test_module.TestClass.test_case
For reference, the
debug environment implements the instructions here:
Building the Documentation¶
api-ref environments will automatically generate
documentation and the API reference respectively. The results are written to
For example, use the following command to render all documentation and manual pages:
$ tox -e docs
Not all of the tests in the
keystone/tests/unit directory are strictly unit
tests. Keystone intentionally includes tests that run the service locally and
drives the entire configuration to achieve basic functional testing.
For the functional tests, an in-memory key-value store or in-memory SQLite database is used to keep the tests fast.
Within the tests directory, the general structure of the backend tests is a
basic set of tests represented under a test class, and then subclasses of those
tests under other classes with different configurations to drive different
backends through the APIs. To add tests covering all drivers, update the base
test class in
The structure of backend testing is in transition, migrating from having
all classes in a single file (
test_backend.py) to one where there is a
directory structure to reduce the size of the test files. See:
To add new drivers, subclass the base class at
test_backend.py (look at
test_backend_sql.py for examples) and update the configuration of the test
test_backend.py has a sequence of tests under the class
keystone.tests.unit.test_backend.IdentityTests that will work with the
default drivers. The
test_backend_sql.py module subclasses those tests,
changing the configuration by overriding with configuration files stored in the
tests/unit/config_files directory aimed at enabling the SQL backend for the
Testing Schema Migrations¶
Tests for database migrations can be found in
LDAP has a fake backend that performs rudimentary operations. If you
are building more significant LDAP functionality, you should test against
a live LDAP server. Devstack has an option to set up a directory server for
Keystone to use. Add ldap to the
ENABLED_SERVICES environment variable,
and set environment variables
KEYSTONE_CLEAR_LDAP=yes in your
The unit tests can be run against a live server with
keystone/tests/unit/test_ldap_pool_livetest.py. The default password is
test but if you have installed devstack with a different LDAP password,
modify the file
keystone/tests/unit/config_files/backend_pool_liveldap.conf to reflect your
To run the live tests you need to set the environment variable
ENABLE_LDAP_LIVE_TEST to a non-negative value.
“Work in progress” Tests¶
Work in progress (WIP) tests are very useful in a variety of situations including:
While doing test-driven-development they can be used to add tests to a review while they are not yet working and will not cause test failures. They can be removed when the functionality is fixed in a later patch set.
A common practice is to recreate bugs by exposing the broken behavior in a functional or unit test. To encapsulate the correct behavior in the test, the test will usually assert the correct outcome, which will break without a fix. Marking the test as WIP gives us the ability to capture the broken behavior in code if a fix isn’t ready yet.
keystone.tests.unit.utils.wip() decorator can be used to mark a test
as WIP. A WIP test will always be run. If the test fails then a TestSkipped
exception is raised because we expect the test to fail. We do not pass
the test in this case so that it doesn’t count toward the number of
successfully run tests. If the test passes an AssertionError exception is
raised so that the developer knows they made the test pass. This is a
reminder to remove the decorator.
keystone.tests.unit.utils.wip() decorator requires that the author
provides a message. This message is important because it will tell other
developers why this test is marked as a work in progress. Reviewers will
require that these messages are descriptive and accurate.
keystone.tests.unit.utils.wip() decorator is not a replacement
for skipping tests.
@wip('waiting on bug #000000') def test(): pass
Another strategy is to not use the wip decorator and instead show how the code currently incorrectly works. Which strategy is chosen is up to the developer.
API & Scenario Tests¶
Keystone provides API and scenario tests via a tempest plugin which is
located in a separate repository. This tempest plugin is mainly intended for
specific scenarios that require a special deployment, such as the tests for the
Federated Identity feature or live testing against LDAP. For the deployment
of these scenarios, keystone also provides a devstack plugin.
For example, to setup a working federated environment, add the following lines in your devstack local.conf` file:
[[local|localrc]] enable_plugin keystone https://opendev.org/openstack/keystone enable_service keystone-saml2-federation
Clone and install keystone-tempest-plugin.
git clone https://opendev.org/openstack/keystone-tempest-plugin sudo pip install ./keystone-tempest-plugin
Finally, to run keystone’s API and scenario tests, deploy tempest with devstack (using the configuration above) and then run the following command from the tempest directory:
tox -e all -- keystone_tempest_plugin
Most of keystone’s API tests are implemented in tempest and it is usually the correct place to add new tests.
Writing new API & Scenario Tests¶
When writing tests for the keystone tempest plugin, we should follow the official tempest guidelines, details about the guidelines can be found at the tempest coding guide. There are also specific guides for the API and scenario tests: Tempest Field Guide to API tests and Tempest Field Guide to Scenario tests.
The keystone tempest plugin also provides a base class. For most cases, the
tests should inherit from it:
keystone_tempest_plugin.tests.base.BaseIdentityTest. This class
already setups the identity API version and is the container of all API
New API services clients
(which are used to communicate with the REST API from
the services) should also be added to this class. For example, below we have a
snippet from the tests at
class IdentityProvidersTest(base.BaseIdentityTest): ... def _create_idp(self, idp_id, idp_ref): idp = self.idps_client.create_identity_provider( idp_id, **idp_ref)['identity_provider'] self.addCleanup( self.idps_client.delete_identity_provider, idp_id) return idp @decorators.idempotent_id('09450910-b816-4150-8513-a2fd4628a0c3') def test_identity_provider_create(self): idp_id = data_utils.rand_uuid_hex() idp_ref = fixtures.idp_ref() idp = self._create_idp(idp_id, idp_ref) # The identity provider is disabled by default idp_ref['enabled'] = False # The remote_ids attribute should be set to an empty list by default idp_ref['remote_ids'] =  self._assert_identity_provider_attributes(idp, idp_id, idp_ref)
The test class extends
keystone_tempest_plugin.tests.base.BaseIdentityTest. Also, the
_create_idp method calls keystone’s API using the
which is an instance from.
Additionally, to illustrate the construction of a new test class, below we have
a snippet from the scenario test that checks the complete federated
authentication workflow (
In the test setup, all of the needed resources are created using the API
service clients. Since it is a scenario test, it is common to need some
customized settings that will come from the environment (in this case, from
the devstack plugin) - these settings are collected in the
class TestSaml2EcpFederatedAuthentication(base.BaseIdentityTest): ... def _setup_settings(self): self.idp_id = CONF.fed_scenario.idp_id self.idp_url = CONF.fed_scenario.idp_ecp_url self.keystone_v3_endpoint = CONF.identity.uri_v3 self.password = CONF.fed_scenario.idp_password self.protocol_id = CONF.fed_scenario.protocol_id self.username = CONF.fed_scenario.idp_username ... def setUp(self): super(TestSaml2EcpFederatedAuthentication, self).setUp() self._setup_settings() # Reset client's session to avoid getting garbage from another runs self.saml2_client.reset_session() # Setup identity provider, mapping and protocol self._setup_idp() self._setup_mapping() self._setup_protocol()
Finally, the tests perform the complete workflow of the feature, asserting correctness in each step:
def _request_unscoped_token(self): resp = self.saml2_client.send_service_provider_request( self.keystone_v3_endpoint, self.idp_id, self.protocol_id) self.assertEqual(http_client.OK, resp.status_code) saml2_authn_request = etree.XML(resp.content) relay_state = self._str_from_xml( saml2_authn_request, self.ECP_RELAY_STATE) sp_consumer_url = self._str_from_xml( saml2_authn_request, self.ECP_SERVICE_PROVIDER_CONSUMER_URL) # Perform the authn request to the identity provider resp = self.saml2_client.send_identity_provider_authn_request( saml2_authn_request, self.idp_url, self.username, self.password) self.assertEqual(http_client.OK, resp.status_code) saml2_idp_authn_response = etree.XML(resp.content) idp_consumer_url = self._str_from_xml( saml2_idp_authn_response, self.ECP_IDP_CONSUMER_URL) # Assert that both saml2_authn_request and saml2_idp_authn_response # have the same consumer URL. self.assertEqual(sp_consumer_url, idp_consumer_url) ... @testtools.skipUnless(CONF.identity_feature_enabled.federation, "Federated Identity feature not enabled") def test_request_unscoped_token(self): self._request_unscoped_token()
Notice that the
test_request_unscoped_token test only executes if the
federation feature flag is enabled.
For each patch submitted upstream, all of the tests from the keystone
tempest plugin are executed in the