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Quickstart: AIO

All-in-one (AIO) builds are a great way to perform an OpenStack-Ansible build for:

  • a development environment

  • an overview of how all of the OpenStack services fit together

  • a simple lab deployment

Although AIO builds aren’t recommended for large production deployments, they’re great for smaller proof-of-concept deployments.

Absolute minimum server resources (currently used for gate checks):

  • 8 vCPU’s

  • 50GB free disk space on the root partition

  • 8GB RAM

Recommended server resources:

  • CPU/motherboard that supports hardware-assisted virtualization

  • 8 CPU Cores

  • 80GB free disk space on the root partition, or 60GB+ on a blank secondary disk. Using a secondary disk requires the use of the bootstrap_host_data_disk_device parameter. Please see Building an AIO for more details.

  • 16GB RAM

It is possible to perform AIO builds within a virtual machine for demonstration and evaluation, but your virtual machines will perform poorly unless nested virtualization is available. For production workloads, multiple nodes for specific roles are recommended.

Building an AIO


There are three steps to running an AIO build, with an optional first step should you need to customize your build:

  • Prepare the host

  • Bootstrap Ansible and the required roles

  • Bootstrap the AIO configuration

  • Run playbooks

Prepare the host

When building an AIO on a new server, it is recommended that all system packages are upgraded and then reboot into the new kernel:


Execute the following commands and scripts as the root user.

## Ubuntu / Debian
# apt-get update
# apt-get dist-upgrade
# reboot
## CentOS
# dnf upgrade
# dnf install git-core
# systemctl stop firewalld
# systemctl mask firewalld
# reboot


Before rebooting, in /etc/sysconfig/selinux, make sure that SELINUX=enforcing is changed to SELINUX=disabled. SELinux enabled is not currently supported in OpenStack-Ansible for CentOS/RHEL due to a lack of maintainers for the feature.


If you are installing with limited connectivity, please review Installing with limited connectivity before proceeding.

Bootstrap Ansible and the required roles

Start by cloning the OpenStack-Ansible repository and changing into the repository root directory:

# git clone https://opendev.org/openstack/openstack-ansible \
# cd /opt/openstack-ansible

Next switch the applicable branch/tag to be deployed from. Note that deploying from the head of a branch may result in an unstable build due to changes in flight and upstream OpenStack changes. For a test (for example, not a development) build it is usually best to checkout the latest tagged version.

# # List all existing tags.
# git tag -l

# # Checkout the stable branch and find just the latest tag
# git checkout stable/xena
# git describe --abbrev=0 --tags

# # Checkout the latest tag from either method of retrieving the tag.
# git checkout xena-em


The Xena release is only compatible with Debian 10 (buster), Debian 11 (bullseye), Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver), Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa), CentOS 8 and CentOS 8 Stream.


The announcement of early end-of-life for CentOS 8 and the migration to CentOS Stream leaves OpenStack-Ansible currently un-installable on CentOS Stream. A number of critical dependencies are taken from the EPEL repository and currently these will not install onto a CentOS Stream host. Careful consideration should be given to the life-cycle of any new deployments on CentOS 8.

The next step is to bootstrap Ansible and the Ansible roles for the development environment.

Run the following to bootstrap Ansible and the required roles:

# scripts/bootstrap-ansible.sh


You might encounter an error while running the Ansible bootstrap script when building some of the Python extensions (like pycrypto) which says:

configure: error: cannot run C compiled programs.

The reason of this failure might be resulting from a noexec mount flag used for the filesystem associated with /tmp which you can check by running the following command:

# mount | grep $(df /tmp | tail -n +2 | awk '{print $1}') | grep noexec

If this is the case you can specify an alternate path which does not have this mount option set:

# TMPDIR=/var/tmp scripts/bootstrap-ansible.sh

Bootstrap the AIO configuration

In order for all the services to run, the host must be prepared with the appropriate disks partitioning, packages, network configuration and configurations for the OpenStack Deployment.

By default the AIO bootstrap scripts deploy a base set of OpenStack services with sensible defaults for the purpose of a gate check, development or testing system.

Review the bootstrap-host role defaults file to see various configuration options. Deployers have the option to change how the host is bootstrapped. This is useful when you wish the AIO to make use of a secondary data disk, or when using this role to bootstrap a multi-node development environment.

The bootstrap script is pre-set to pass the environment variable BOOTSTRAP_OPTS as an additional option to the bootstrap process. For example, if you wish to set the bootstrap to re-partition a specific secondary storage device (/dev/sdb), which will erase all of the data on the device, then execute:

# export BOOTSTRAP_OPTS="bootstrap_host_data_disk_device=sdb"

Additional options may be implemented by simply concatenating them with a space between each set of options, for example:

# export BOOTSTRAP_OPTS="bootstrap_host_data_disk_device=sdb"
# export BOOTSTRAP_OPTS="${BOOTSTRAP_OPTS} bootstrap_host_data_disk_fs_type=xfs"

If you are installing with limited connectivity, or you don’t have default route set, you will need to define interface for outgoing connections manually

# export BOOTSTRAP_OPTS="bootstrap_host_public_interface=eth1"

For the default AIO scenario, the AIO configuration preparation is completed by executing:

# scripts/bootstrap-aio.sh

To add OpenStack Services over and above the bootstrap-aio default services for the applicable scenario, copy the conf.d files with the .aio file extension into /etc/openstack_deploy and rename then to .yml files. For example, in order to enable the OpenStack Telemetry services, execute the following:

# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/
# cp etc/openstack_deploy/conf.d/{aodh,gnocchi,ceilometer}.yml.aio /etc/openstack_deploy/conf.d/
# for f in $(ls -1 /etc/openstack_deploy/conf.d/*.aio); do mv -v ${f} ${f%.*}; done

It is possible to also do this (and change other defaults) during the bootstrap script initial execution by changing the SCENARIO environment variable before running the script. The key word “aio” will ensure that a basic set of OpenStack services (cinder, glance, horizon, neutron, nova) will be deployed. The key words “lxc” can be used to set the container back-end, while the key word “metal” will deploy all services without containers. In order to implement any other services, add the name of the conf.d file name without the .yml.aio extension into the SCENARIO environment variable. Each key word should be delimited by an underscore. For example, the following will implement an AIO with barbican, cinder, glance, horizon, neutron, and nova. It will set the cinder storage back-end to ceph and will make use of LXC as the container back-end.

# export SCENARIO='aio_lxc_barbican_ceph'
# scripts/bootstrap-aio.sh

To add any global overrides, over and above the defaults for the applicable scenario, edit /etc/openstack_deploy/user_variables.yml. In order to understand the various ways that you can override the default behaviour set out in the roles, playbook and group variables, see Overriding default configuration.

See the Deployment Guide for a more detailed break down of how to implement your own configuration rather than to use the AIO bootstrap.

Run playbooks

Finally, run the playbooks by executing:

# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/playbooks
# openstack-ansible setup-hosts.yml
# openstack-ansible setup-infrastructure.yml
# openstack-ansible setup-openstack.yml

The installation process will take a while to complete, but here are some general estimates:

  • Bare metal systems with SSD storage: ~ 30-50 minutes

  • Virtual machines with SSD storage: ~ 45-60 minutes

  • Systems with traditional hard disks: ~ 90-120 minutes

Once the playbooks have fully executed, it is possible to experiment with various settings changes in /etc/openstack_deploy/user_variables.yml and only run individual playbooks. For example, to run the playbook for the Keystone service, execute:

# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/playbooks
# openstack-ansible os-keystone-install.yml

Rebooting an AIO

As the AIO includes all three cluster members of MariaDB/Galera, the cluster has to be re-initialized after the host is rebooted.

This is done by executing the following:

# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/playbooks
# openstack-ansible -e galera_ignore_cluster_state=true galera-install.yml

If this fails to get the database cluster back into a running state, then please make use of the Galera Cluster Recovery section in the operations guide.

Rebuilding an AIO

Sometimes it may be useful to destroy all the containers and rebuild the AIO. While it is preferred that the AIO is entirely destroyed and rebuilt, this isn’t always practical. As such the following may be executed instead:

# # Move to the playbooks directory.
# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/playbooks

# # Destroy all of the running containers.
# openstack-ansible lxc-containers-destroy.yml

# # On the host stop all of the services that run locally and not
# #  within a container.
# for i in \
       $(ls /etc/init \
         | grep -e "nova\|swift\|neutron\|cinder" \
         | awk -F'.' '{print $1}'); do \
    service $i stop; \

# # Uninstall the core services that were installed.
# for i in $(pip freeze | grep -e "nova\|neutron\|keystone\|swift\|cinder"); do \
    pip uninstall -y $i; done

# # Remove crusty directories.
# rm -rf /openstack /etc/{neutron,nova,swift,cinder} \

# # Remove the pip configuration files on the host
# rm -rf /root/.pip

# # Remove the apt package manager proxy
# rm /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/00apt-cacher-proxy

Should an existing AIO environment need to be reinstalled, the most efficient method is to destroy the host operating system and start over. For this reason, AIOs are best run inside of some form of virtual machine or cloud guest.

Reference Diagram for an AIO Build

Here is a basic diagram that attempts to illustrate what the resulting AIO deployment looks like.

This diagram is not to scale and is not even 100% accurate, this diagram was built for informational purposes only and should ONLY be used as such.

          ------->[ ETH0 == Public Network ]
          V                        [  *   ] Socket Connections
[ HOST MACHINE ]                   [ <>v^ ] Network Connections
  *       ^  *
  |       |  |-------------------------------------------------------
  |       |                                                         |
  |       |---------------->[ HAProxy ]                             |
  |                                 ^                               |
  |                                 |                               |
  |                                 V                               |
  |                          (BR-Interfaces)<------                 |
  |                                  ^     *      |                 |
  *-[ LXC ]*--*----------------------|-----|------|----|            |
  |           |                      |     |      |  | |            |
  |           |                      |     |      |  | |            |
  |           |                      |     |      |  | |            |
  |           |                      |     |      V  * |            |
  |           *                      |     |   [ Galera x3 ]        |
  |        [ Memcached ]<------------|     |           |            |
  *-------*[ Rsyslog ]<--------------|--|  |           *            |
  |        [ Repos Server x3 ]<------|  ---|-->[ RabbitMQ x3 ]      |
  |        [ Horizon x2 ]<-----------|  |  |                        |
  |        [ Nova api ec2 ]<---------|--|  |                        |
  |        [ Nova api os ]<----------|->|  |                        |
  |        [ Nova console ]<---------|  |  |                        |
  |        [ Nova Cert ]<------------|->|  |                        |
  |        [ Cinder api ]<-----------|->|  |                        |
  |        [ Glance api ]<-----------|->|  |                        |
  |        [ Heat apis ]<------------|->|  | [ Loop back devices ]*-*
  |        [ Heat engine ]<----------|->|  |    \        \          |
  | ------>[ Nova api metadata ]     |  |  |    { LVM }  { XFS x3 } |
  | |      [ Nova conductor ]<-------|  |  |       *         *      |
  | |----->[ Nova scheduler ]--------|->|  |       |         |      |
  | |      [ Keystone x3 ]<----------|->|  |       |         |      |
  | | |--->[ Neutron agents ]*-------|--|---------------------------*
  | | |    [ Neutron server ]<-------|->|          |         |      |
  | | | |->[ Swift proxy ]<-----------  |          |         |      |
  *-|-|-|-*[ Cinder volume ]*----------------------*         |      |
  | | | |                               |                    |      |
  | | | -----------------------------------------            |      |
  | | ----------------------------------------- |            |      |
  | |          -------------------------|     | |            |      |
  | |          |                              | |            |      |
  | |          V                              | |            *      |
  ---->[ Compute ]*[ Neutron linuxbridge ]<---| |->[ Swift storage ]-