Install OpenStack

In the previous section, we installed Juju and created a Juju controller and model. We are now going to use Juju to install OpenStack itself. There are two methods to choose from:

  1. By individual charm. This method provides a solid understanding of how Juju works and of how OpenStack is put together. Choose this option if you have never installed OpenStack with Juju.

  2. By charm bundle. This method provides an automated means to install OpenStack. Choose this option if you are familiar with how OpenStack is built with Juju.

The current page is devoted to method #1. See Install OpenStack from a bundle for method #2.

Important

Irrespective of install method, once the cloud is deployed, the following management practices related to charm versions and machine series are recommended:

  1. The entire suite of charms used to manage the cloud should be upgraded to the latest stable charm revision before any major change is made to the cloud (e.g. migrating to new charms, upgrading cloud services, upgrading machine series). See Charms upgrade for details.

  2. The Juju machines that comprise the cloud should all be running the same series (e.g. ‘bionic’ or ‘focal’, but not a mix of the two). See Series upgrade for details.

Despite the length of this page, only three distinct Juju commands will be employed: juju deploy, juju add-unit, and juju add-relation. You may want to review these pertinent sections of the Juju documentation before continuing:

This page will show how to install a minimal non-HA OpenStack cloud. See Infrastructure high availability for guidance on that subject.

OpenStack release

As the Overview of the Installation section states, OpenStack Victoria will be deployed atop Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal) cloud nodes. In order to achieve this a cloud archive release of ‘cloud:focal-victoria’ will be used during the install of each OpenStack application. Note that some applications are not part of the OpenStack project per se and therefore do not apply (exceptionally, Ceph applications do use this method). Not using a more recent OpenStack release in this way will result in an Ussuri deployment (i.e. Ussuri is in the Ubuntu package archive for Focal).

See Perform the upgrade in the OpenStack Upgrade appendix for more details on cloud archive releases and how they are used when upgrading OpenStack.

Important

The chosen OpenStack release may impact the installation and configuration instructions. This guide assumes that OpenStack Victoria is being deployed.

Installation progress

There are many moving parts involved in a charmed OpenStack install. During much of the process there will be components that have not yet been satisfied, which will cause error-like messages to be displayed in the output of the juju status command. Do not be alarmed. Indeed, these are opportunities to learn about the interdependencies of the various pieces of software. Messages such as Missing relation and blocked will vanish once the appropriate applications and relations have been added and processed.

Tip

One convenient way to monitor the installation progress is to have command watch -n 5 -c juju status --color running in a separate terminal.

Deploy OpenStack

Assuming you have precisely followed the instructions on the Install Juju page, you should now have a Juju controller called ‘maas-controller’ and an empty Juju model called ‘openstack’. Change to that context now:

juju switch maas-controller:openstack

In the following sections, the various OpenStack components will be added to the ‘openstack’ model. Each application will be installed from the online Charm store and many will have configuration options specified via a YAML file.

Note

You do not need to wait for a Juju command to complete before issuing further ones. However, it can be very instructive to see the effect one command has on the current state of the cloud.

Ceph OSD

The ceph-osd application is deployed to four nodes with the ceph-osd charm. The name of the block devices backing the OSDs is dependent upon the hardware on the nodes. All possible devices across the nodes should be given as the value for the osd-devices option (space-separated). Here, we’ll be using the same device on each cloud node: /dev/sdb. File ceph-osd.yaml contains the configuration.

ceph-osd:
  osd-devices: /dev/sdb
  source: cloud:focal-victoria

To deploy the application we’ll make use of the ‘compute’ tag that we placed on each of these nodes on the Install MAAS page:

juju deploy -n 4 --config ceph-osd.yaml --constraints tags=compute ceph-osd

If a message from a ceph-osd unit like “Non-pristine devices detected” appears in the output of juju status you will need to use actions zap-disk and add-disk that come with the ‘ceph-osd’ charm. The zap-disk action is destructive in nature. Only use it if you want to purge the disk of all data and signatures for use by Ceph.

Note

Since ceph-osd was deployed on four nodes and there are only four nodes available in this environment, the usage of the ‘compute’ tag is not strictly necessary.

Nova compute

The nova-compute application is deployed to one node with the nova-compute charm. We’ll then scale-out the application to two other machines. File nova-compute.yaml contains the configuration:

nova-compute:
  enable-live-migration: true
  enable-resize: true
  migration-auth-type: ssh
  openstack-origin: cloud:focal-victoria

The initial node must be targeted by machine since there are no more free Juju machines (MAAS nodes) available. This means we’re placing multiple services on our nodes. We’ve chosen machines 1, 2, and 3:

juju deploy -n 3 --to 1,2,3 --config nova-compute.yaml nova-compute

Note

The ‘nova-compute’ charm is designed to support one image format type per application at any given time. Changing format (see charm option libvirt-image-backend) while existing instances are using the prior format will require manual image conversion for each instance. See bug LP #1826888.

MySQL InnoDB Cluster

MySQL InnoDB Cluster always requires at least three database units. They will be containerised on machines 0, 1, and 2:

juju deploy -n 3 --to lxd:0,lxd:1,lxd:2 mysql-innodb-cluster

Vault

Vault is necessary for managing the TLS certificates that will enable encrypted communication between cloud applications. It will be containerised on machine 3:

juju deploy --to lxd:3 vault

This is the first application to be joined with the cloud database that was set up in the previous section. The process is:

  1. create an application-specific instance of mysql-router (a subordinate)

  2. add a relation between that mysql-router instance and the database

  3. add a relation between the application and the mysql-router instance

The combination of steps 2 and 3 joins the application to the cloud database.

Here are the corresponding commands for Vault:

juju deploy mysql-router vault-mysql-router
juju add-relation vault-mysql-router:db-router mysql-innodb-cluster:db-router
juju add-relation vault-mysql-router:shared-db vault:shared-db

Vault now needs to be initialised and unsealed. The vault charm will also need to be authorised to carry out certain tasks. These steps are covered in the vault charm documentation. Perform them now.

Once the above is completed the Unit section output to command juju status should look similar to this:

Unit                     Workload  Agent  Machine  Public address  Ports     Message
ceph-osd/0*              blocked   idle   0        10.0.0.171                Missing relation: monitor
ceph-osd/1               blocked   idle   1        10.0.0.172                Missing relation: monitor
ceph-osd/2               blocked   idle   2        10.0.0.173                Missing relation: monitor
ceph-osd/3               blocked   idle   3        10.0.0.174                Missing relation: monitor
mysql-innodb-cluster/0*  active    idle   0/lxd/0  10.0.0.175                Unit is ready: Mode: R/W
mysql-innodb-cluster/1   active    idle   1/lxd/0  10.0.0.176                Unit is ready: Mode: R/O
mysql-innodb-cluster/2   active    idle   2/lxd/0  10.0.0.177                Unit is ready: Mode: R/O
nova-compute/0*          blocked   idle   1        10.0.0.172                Missing relations: messaging, image
nova-compute/1           blocked   idle   2        10.0.0.173                Missing relations: messaging, image
nova-compute/2           blocked   idle   3        10.0.0.174                Missing relations: messaging, image
vault/0*                 active    idle   3/lxd/0  10.0.0.178      8200/tcp  Unit is ready (active: true, mlock: disabled)
  vault-mysql-router/0*  active    idle            10.0.0.178                Unit is ready

Neutron networking

Neutron networking is implemented with four applications:

  • neutron-api

  • neutron-api-plugin-ovn (subordinate)

  • ovn-central

  • ovn-chassis (subordinate)

File neutron.yaml contains the configuration necessary for three of them:

ovn-chassis:
  bridge-interface-mappings: br-ex:eth1
  ovn-bridge-mappings: physnet1:br-ex
neutron-api:
  neutron-security-groups: true
  flat-network-providers: physnet1
  openstack-origin: cloud:focal-victoria
ovn-central:
  source: cloud:focal-victoria

The bridge-interface-mappings setting refers to a network interface that the OVN Chassis will bind to. In the above example it is ‘eth1’ and it should be an unused interface. In MAAS this interface must be given an IP mode of ‘Unconfigured’ (see Post-commission configuration in the MAAS documentation). All four nodes should have this interface to ensure that any node is able to accommodate OVN Chassis.

The flat-network-providers setting enables the Neutron flat network provider used in this example scenario and gives it the name of ‘physnet1’. The flat network provider and its name will be referenced when we Set up public networking on the next page.

The ovn-bridge-mappings setting maps the data-port interface to the flat network provider.

The main OVN application is ovn-central and it requires at least three units. They will be containerised on machines 0, 1, and 2:

juju deploy -n 3 --to lxd:0,lxd:1,lxd:2 --config neutron.yaml ovn-central

The neutron-api application will be containerised on machine 1:

juju deploy --to lxd:1 --config neutron.yaml neutron-api

Deploy the subordinate charm applications:

juju deploy neutron-api-plugin-ovn
juju deploy --config neutron.yaml ovn-chassis

Add the necessary relations:

juju add-relation neutron-api-plugin-ovn:neutron-plugin neutron-api:neutron-plugin-api-subordinate
juju add-relation neutron-api-plugin-ovn:ovsdb-cms ovn-central:ovsdb-cms
juju add-relation ovn-chassis:ovsdb ovn-central:ovsdb
juju add-relation ovn-chassis:nova-compute nova-compute:neutron-plugin
juju add-relation neutron-api:certificates vault:certificates
juju add-relation neutron-api-plugin-ovn:certificates vault:certificates
juju add-relation ovn-central:certificates vault:certificates
juju add-relation ovn-chassis:certificates vault:certificates

Join neutron-api to the cloud database:

juju deploy mysql-router neutron-api-mysql-router
juju add-relation neutron-api-mysql-router:db-router mysql-innodb-cluster:db-router
juju add-relation neutron-api-mysql-router:shared-db neutron-api:shared-db

Keystone

The keystone application will be containerised on machine 0:

juju deploy --to lxd:0 --config openstack-origin=cloud:focal-victoria keystone

Join keystone to the cloud database:

juju deploy mysql-router keystone-mysql-router
juju add-relation keystone-mysql-router:db-router mysql-innodb-cluster:db-router
juju add-relation keystone-mysql-router:shared-db keystone:shared-db

Two additional relations can be added at this time:

juju add-relation keystone:identity-service neutron-api:identity-service
juju add-relation keystone:certificates vault:certificates

RabbitMQ

The rabbitmq-server application will be containerised on machine 2 with the rabbitmq-server charm:

juju deploy --to lxd:2 rabbitmq-server

Two relations can be added at this time:

juju add-relation rabbitmq-server:amqp neutron-api:amqp
juju add-relation rabbitmq-server:amqp nova-compute:amqp

At this time the Unit section output to command juju status should look similar to this:

Unit                           Workload  Agent  Machine  Public address  Ports              Message
ceph-osd/0*                    blocked   idle   0        10.0.0.171                         Missing relation: monitor
ceph-osd/1                     blocked   idle   1        10.0.0.172                         Missing relation: monitor
ceph-osd/2                     blocked   idle   2        10.0.0.173                         Missing relation: monitor
ceph-osd/3                     blocked   idle   3        10.0.0.174                         Missing relation: monitor
keystone/0*                    active    idle   0/lxd/2  10.0.0.183      5000/tcp           Unit is ready
  keystone-mysql-router/0*     active    idle            10.0.0.183                         Unit is ready
mysql-innodb-cluster/0*        active    idle   0/lxd/0  10.0.0.175                         Unit is ready: Mode: R/W
mysql-innodb-cluster/1         active    idle   1/lxd/0  10.0.0.176                         Unit is ready: Mode: R/O
mysql-innodb-cluster/2         active    idle   2/lxd/0  10.0.0.177                         Unit is ready: Mode: R/O
neutron-api/0*                 active    idle   1/lxd/2  10.0.0.182      9696/tcp           Unit is ready
  neutron-api-mysql-router/0*  active    idle            10.0.0.182                         Unit is ready
  neutron-api-plugin-ovn/0*    active    idle            10.0.0.182                         Unit is ready
nova-compute/0*                blocked   idle   1        10.0.0.172                         Missing relations: image
  ovn-chassis/0*               active    idle            10.0.0.172                         Unit is ready
nova-compute/1                 blocked   idle   2        10.0.0.173                         Missing relations: image
  ovn-chassis/2                active    idle            10.0.0.173                         Unit is ready
nova-compute/2                 blocked   idle   3        10.0.0.174                         Missing relations: image
  ovn-chassis/1                active    idle            10.0.0.174                         Unit is ready
ovn-central/0                  active    idle   0/lxd/1  10.0.0.181      6641/tcp,6642/tcp  Unit is ready
ovn-central/1                  active    idle   1/lxd/1  10.0.0.179      6641/tcp,6642/tcp  Unit is ready
ovn-central/2*                 active    idle   2/lxd/1  10.0.0.180      6641/tcp,6642/tcp  Unit is ready (leader: ovnnb_db, ovnsb_db northd: active)
rabbitmq-server/0*             active    idle   2/lxd/2  10.0.0.184      5672/tcp           Unit is ready
vault/0*                       active    idle   3/lxd/0  10.0.0.178      8200/tcp           Unit is ready (active: true, mlock: disabled)
  vault-mysql-router/0*        active    idle            10.0.0.178                         Unit is ready

Nova cloud controller

The nova-cloud-controller application, which includes nova-scheduler, nova-api, and nova-conductor services, will be containerised on machine 0 with the nova-cloud-controller charm. File nova-cloud-controller.yaml contains the configuration:

nova-cloud-controller:
  network-manager: Neutron
  openstack-origin: cloud:focal-victoria

To deploy:

juju deploy --to lxd:3 --config nova-cloud-controller.yaml nova-cloud-controller

Join nova-cloud-controller to the cloud database:

juju deploy mysql-router ncc-mysql-router
juju add-relation ncc-mysql-router:db-router mysql-innodb-cluster:db-router
juju add-relation ncc-mysql-router:shared-db nova-cloud-controller:shared-db

Note

To keep juju status output compact the expected nova-cloud-controller-mysql-router application name has been shortened to ncc-mysql-router.

Five additional relations can be added at this time:

juju add-relation nova-cloud-controller:identity-service keystone:identity-service
juju add-relation nova-cloud-controller:amqp rabbitmq-server:amqp
juju add-relation nova-cloud-controller:neutron-api neutron-api:neutron-api
juju add-relation nova-cloud-controller:cloud-compute nova-compute:cloud-compute
juju add-relation nova-cloud-controller:certificates vault:certificates

Placement

The placement application will be containerised on machine 3 with the placement charm:

juju deploy --to lxd:3 --config openstack-origin=cloud:focal-victoria placement

Join placement to the cloud database:

juju deploy mysql-router placement-mysql-router
juju add-relation placement-mysql-router:db-router mysql-innodb-cluster:db-router
juju add-relation placement-mysql-router:shared-db placement:shared-db

Three additional relations can be added at this time:

juju add-relation placement:identity-service keystone:identity-service
juju add-relation placement:placement nova-cloud-controller:placement
juju add-relation placement:certificates vault:certificates

OpenStack dashboard

The openstack-dashboard application (Horizon) will be containerised on machine 2 with the openstack-dashboard charm:

juju deploy --to lxd:2 --config openstack-origin=cloud:focal-victoria openstack-dashboard

Join openstack-dashboard to the cloud database:

juju deploy mysql-router dashboard-mysql-router
juju add-relation dashboard-mysql-router:db-router mysql-innodb-cluster:db-router
juju add-relation dashboard-mysql-router:shared-db openstack-dashboard:shared-db

Note

To keep juju status output compact the expected openstack-dashboard-mysql-router application name has been shortened to dashboard-mysql-router.

Two additional relations are required:

juju add-relation openstack-dashboard:identity-service keystone:identity-service
juju add-relation openstack-dashboard:certificates vault:certificates

Glance

The glance application will be containerised on machine 3 with the glance charm:

juju deploy --to lxd:3 --config openstack-origin=cloud:focal-victoria glance

Join glance to the cloud database:

juju deploy mysql-router glance-mysql-router
juju add-relation glance-mysql-router:db-router mysql-innodb-cluster:db-router
juju add-relation glance-mysql-router:shared-db glance:shared-db

Four additional relations can be added at this time:

juju add-relation glance:image-service nova-cloud-controller:image-service
juju add-relation glance:image-service nova-compute:image-service
juju add-relation glance:identity-service keystone:identity-service
juju add-relation glance:certificates vault:certificates

At this time the Unit section output to command juju status should look similar to this:

Unit                           Workload  Agent  Machine  Public address  Ports              Message
ceph-osd/0*                    blocked   idle   0        10.0.0.171                         Missing relation: monitor
ceph-osd/1                     blocked   idle   1        10.0.0.172                         Missing relation: monitor
ceph-osd/2                     blocked   idle   2        10.0.0.173                         Missing relation: monitor
ceph-osd/3                     blocked   idle   3        10.0.0.174                         Missing relation: monitor
glance/0*                      active    idle   3/lxd/3  10.0.0.188      9292/tcp           Unit is ready
  glance-mysql-router/0*       active    idle            10.0.0.188                         Unit is ready
keystone/0*                    active    idle   0/lxd/2  10.0.0.183      5000/tcp           Unit is ready
  keystone-mysql-router/0*     active    idle            10.0.0.183                         Unit is ready
mysql-innodb-cluster/0*        active    idle   0/lxd/0  10.0.0.175                         Unit is ready: Mode: R/W
mysql-innodb-cluster/1         active    idle   1/lxd/0  10.0.0.176                         Unit is ready: Mode: R/O
mysql-innodb-cluster/2         active    idle   2/lxd/0  10.0.0.177                         Unit is ready: Mode: R/O
neutron-api/0*                 active    idle   1/lxd/2  10.0.0.182      9696/tcp           Unit is ready
  neutron-api-mysql-router/0*  active    idle            10.0.0.182                         Unit is ready
  neutron-api-plugin-ovn/0*    active    idle            10.0.0.182                         Unit is ready
nova-cloud-controller/0*       active    idle   3/lxd/1  10.0.0.185      8774/tcp,8775/tcp  Unit is ready
  ncc-mysql-router/0*          active    idle            10.0.0.185                         Unit is ready
nova-compute/0*                active    idle   1        10.0.0.172                         Unit is ready
  ovn-chassis/0*               active    idle            10.0.0.172                         Unit is ready
nova-compute/1                 active    idle   2        10.0.0.173                         Unit is ready
  ovn-chassis/2                active    idle            10.0.0.173                         Unit is ready
nova-compute/2                 active    idle   3        10.0.0.174                         Unit is ready
  ovn-chassis/1                active    idle            10.0.0.174                         Unit is ready
openstack-dashboard/0*         active    idle   2/lxd/3  10.0.0.187      80/tcp,443/tcp     Unit is ready
  dashboard-mysql-router/0*    active    idle            10.0.0.187                         Unit is ready
ovn-central/0                  active    idle   0/lxd/1  10.0.0.181      6641/tcp,6642/tcp  Unit is ready
ovn-central/1                  active    idle   1/lxd/1  10.0.0.179      6641/tcp,6642/tcp  Unit is ready
ovn-central/2*                 active    idle   2/lxd/1  10.0.0.180      6641/tcp,6642/tcp  Unit is ready (leader: ovnnb_db, ovnsb_db northd: active)
placement/0*                   active    idle   3/lxd/2  10.0.0.186      8778/tcp           Unit is ready
  placement-mysql-router/0*    active    idle            10.0.0.186                         Unit is ready
rabbitmq-server/0*             active    idle   2/lxd/2  10.0.0.184      5672/tcp           Unit is ready
vault/0*                       active    idle   3/lxd/0  10.0.0.178      8200/tcp           Unit is ready (active: true, mlock: disabled)
  vault-mysql-router/0*        active    idle            10.0.0.178                         Unit is ready

Ceph monitor

The ceph-mon application will be containerised on machines 0, 1, and 2 with the ceph-mon charm:

juju deploy -n 3 --to lxd:0,lxd:1,lxd:2 --config source=cloud:focal-victoria ceph-mon

Three relations can be added at this time:

juju add-relation ceph-mon:osd ceph-osd:mon
juju add-relation ceph-mon:client nova-compute:ceph
juju add-relation ceph-mon:client glance:ceph

For the above relations,

  • The nova-compute:ceph relation makes Ceph the storage backend for Nova non-bootable disk images. The nova-compute charm option libvirt-image-backend must be set to ‘rbd’ for this to take effect.

  • The glance:ceph relation makes Ceph the storage backend for Glance.

Cinder

The cinder application will be containerised on machine 1 with the cinder charm. File cinder.yaml contains the configuration:

cinder:
  glance-api-version: 2
  block-device: None
  openstack-origin: cloud:focal-victoria

To deploy:

juju deploy --to lxd:1 --config cinder.yaml cinder

Join cinder to the cloud database:

juju deploy mysql-router cinder-mysql-router
juju add-relation cinder-mysql-router:db-router mysql-innodb-cluster:db-router
juju add-relation cinder-mysql-router:shared-db cinder:shared-db

Five additional relations can be added at this time:

juju add-relation cinder:cinder-volume-service nova-cloud-controller:cinder-volume-service
juju add-relation cinder:identity-service keystone:identity-service
juju add-relation cinder:amqp rabbitmq-server:amqp
juju add-relation cinder:image-service glance:image-service
juju add-relation cinder:certificates vault:certificates

The above glance:image-service relation will enable Cinder to consume the Glance API (e.g. making Cinder able to perform volume snapshots of Glance images).

Like Glance, Cinder will use Ceph as its storage backend (hence block-device: None in the configuration file). This will be implemented via the cinder-ceph subordinate charm:

juju deploy cinder-ceph

Three relations need to be added:

juju add-relation cinder-ceph:storage-backend cinder:storage-backend
juju add-relation cinder-ceph:ceph ceph-mon:client
juju add-relation cinder-ceph:ceph-access nova-compute:ceph-access

Ceph RADOS Gateway

The Ceph RADOS Gateway will be deployed to offer an S3 and Swift compatible HTTP gateway. This is an alternative to using OpenStack Swift.

The ceph-radosgw application will be containerised on machine 0 with the ceph-radosgw charm.

juju deploy --to lxd:0 ceph-radosgw

A single relation is needed:

juju add-relation ceph-radosgw:mon ceph-mon:radosgw

NTP

The final component is an NTP client to keep the time on each cloud node synchronised. This is done with the ntp subordinate charm:

juju deploy ntp

The below relation will add an ntp unit alongside each ceph-osd unit, and thus on each of the four cloud nodes:

juju add-relation ceph-osd:juju-info ntp:juju-info

Final results and dashboard access

Once all the applications have been deployed and the relations between them have been added we need to wait for the output of juju status to settle. The final results should be devoid of any error-like messages. Example output (including relations) for a successful cloud deployment is given here.

One milestone in the deployment of OpenStack is the first login to the Horizon dashboard. You will need its IP address and the admin password.

Obtain the address in this way:

juju status --format=yaml openstack-dashboard | grep public-address | awk '{print $2}' | head -1

The password is queried from Keystone:

juju run --unit keystone/0 leader-get admin_passwd

In this example, the address is ‘10.0.0.187’ and the password is ‘kohy6shoh3diWav5’.

The dashboard URL then becomes:

http://10.0.0.187/horizon

And the credentials are:

Domain: admin_domain
User Name: admin
Password: kohy6shoh3diWav5

Tip

To access the dasboard from your desktop you will need SSH local port forwarding. Example: sudo ssh -L 8001:10.0.0.187:80 <user>@<host>, where <host> can contact 10.0.0.187 on port 80. Then go to http://localhost:8001/horizon.

Once logged in you should see something like this:

Horizon dashboard

To enable instance console access from within Horizon:

juju config nova-cloud-controller console-access-protocol=novnc

Next steps

You have successfully deployed OpenStack using both Juju and MAAS. The next step is to render the cloud functional for users. This will involve setting up networks, images, and a user environment. Go to Configure OpenStack now.