A cloud deployment is a living system. Machines age and fail, software becomes outdated, vulnerabilities are discovered. When errors or omissions are made in configuration, or when software fixes must be applied, these changes must be made in a secure, but convenient, fashion. These changes are typically solved through configuration management.
It is important to protect the cloud deployment from being configured or manipulated by malicious entities. With many systems in a cloud employing compute and networking virtualization, there are distinct challenges applicable to OpenStack which must be addressed through integrity lifecycle management.
Administrators must perform command and control over the cloud for various operational functions. It is important these command and control facilities are understood and secured.