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Quickstart: AIO

All-in-one (AIO) builds are a great way to perform an OpenStack-Ansible build for:

  • a development environment

  • an overview of how all of the OpenStack services fit together

  • a simple lab deployment

Although AIO builds aren’t recommended for large production deployments, they’re great for smaller proof-of-concept deployments.

Absolute minimum server resources (currently used for gate checks):

  • 8 vCPU’s

  • 50GB free disk space on the root partition

  • 8GB RAM

Recommended server resources:

  • CPU/motherboard that supports hardware-assisted virtualization

  • 8 CPU Cores

  • 80GB free disk space on the root partition, or 60GB+ on a blank secondary disk. Using a secondary disk requires the use of the bootstrap_host_data_disk_device parameter. Please see Building an AIO for more details.

  • 16GB RAM

It is possible to perform AIO builds within a virtual machine for demonstration and evaluation, but your virtual machines will perform poorly unless nested virtualization is available. For production workloads, multiple nodes for specific roles are recommended.

Building an AIO


There are three steps to running an AIO build, with an optional first step should you need to customize your build:

  • Prepare the host

  • Bootstrap Ansible and the required roles

  • Bootstrap the AIO configuration

  • Run playbooks

Prepare the host

When building an AIO on a new server, it is recommended that all system packages are upgraded and then reboot into the new kernel:


Execute the following commands and scripts as the root user.

## Ubuntu / Debian
# apt-get update
# apt-get dist-upgrade
# reboot
## CentOS / Rocky Linux
# dnf upgrade
# dnf install git-core
# systemctl stop firewalld
# systemctl mask firewalld
# reboot


Before rebooting, in /etc/sysconfig/selinux, make sure that SELINUX=enforcing is changed to SELINUX=disabled. SELinux enabled is not currently supported in OpenStack-Ansible for CentOS/Rocky/RHEL due to a lack of maintainers for the feature.


If you are installing with limited connectivity, please review Installing with limited connectivity before proceeding.

Bootstrap Ansible and the required roles

Start by cloning the OpenStack-Ansible repository and changing into the repository root directory:

# git clone https://opendev.org/openstack/openstack-ansible \
# cd /opt/openstack-ansible

Next switch the applicable branch/tag to be deployed from. Note that deploying from the head of a branch may result in an unstable build due to changes in flight and upstream OpenStack changes. For a test (for example, not a development) build it is usually best to checkout the latest tagged version.

# # List all existing tags.
# git tag -l

# # Checkout the stable branch and find just the latest tag
# git checkout master
# git describe --abbrev=0 --tags

# # Checkout the latest tag from either method of retrieving the tag.
# git checkout master


The 2024.2 release is only compatible with Debian 12 (bookworm), Ubuntu 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish), CentOS 9 Stream, and derivitives of CentOS Stream/RHEL such as Rocky Linux.

The next step is to bootstrap Ansible and the Ansible roles for the development environment.

Run the following to bootstrap Ansible and the required roles:

# scripts/bootstrap-ansible.sh


You might encounter an error while running the Ansible bootstrap script when building some of the Python extensions (like pycrypto) which says:

configure: error: cannot run C compiled programs.

The reason of this failure might be resulting from a noexec mount flag used for the filesystem associated with /tmp which you can check by running the following command:

# mount | grep $(df /tmp | tail -n +2 | awk '{print $1}') | grep noexec

If this is the case you can specify an alternate path which does not have this mount option set:

# TMPDIR=/var/tmp scripts/bootstrap-ansible.sh

Bootstrap the AIO configuration

In order for all the services to run, the host must be prepared with the appropriate disks partitioning, packages, network configuration and configurations for the OpenStack Deployment.

By default the AIO bootstrap scripts deploy a base set of OpenStack services with sensible defaults for the purpose of a gate check, development or testing system.

Review the bootstrap-host role defaults file to see various configuration options. Deployers have the option to change how the host is bootstrapped. This is useful when you wish the AIO to make use of a secondary data disk, or when using this role to bootstrap a multi-node development environment.

The bootstrap script is pre-set to pass the environment variable BOOTSTRAP_OPTS as an additional option to the bootstrap process. For example, if you wish to set the bootstrap to re-partition a specific secondary storage device (/dev/sdb), which will erase all of the data on the device, then execute:

# export BOOTSTRAP_OPTS="bootstrap_host_data_disk_device=sdb"

Additional options may be implemented by simply concatenating them with a space between each set of options, for example:

# export BOOTSTRAP_OPTS="bootstrap_host_data_disk_device=sdb"
# export BOOTSTRAP_OPTS="${BOOTSTRAP_OPTS} bootstrap_host_data_disk_fs_type=xfs"

If you are installing with limited connectivity, or you don’t have default route set, you will need to define interface for outgoing connections manually

# export BOOTSTRAP_OPTS="bootstrap_host_public_interface=eth1"

For the default AIO scenario, the AIO configuration preparation is completed by executing:

# scripts/bootstrap-aio.sh

To add OpenStack Services over and above the bootstrap-aio default services for the applicable scenario, copy the conf.d files with the .aio file extension into /etc/openstack_deploy and rename then to .yml files. For example, in order to enable the OpenStack Telemetry services, execute the following:

# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/
# cp etc/openstack_deploy/conf.d/{aodh,gnocchi,ceilometer}.yml.aio /etc/openstack_deploy/conf.d/
# for f in $(ls -1 /etc/openstack_deploy/conf.d/*.aio); do mv -v ${f} ${f%.*}; done

It is possible to also do this (and change other defaults) during the bootstrap script initial execution by changing the SCENARIO environment variable before running the script. The key word ‘aio’ will ensure that a basic set of OpenStack services (cinder, glance, horizon, neutron, nova) will be deployed. The key words ‘lxc’ can be used to set the container back-end, while the key word ‘metal’ will deploy all services without containers. In order to implement any other services, add the name of the conf.d file name without the .yml.aio extension into the SCENARIO environment variable. Each key word should be delimited by an underscore. For example, the following will implement an AIO with barbican, cinder, glance, horizon, neutron, and nova. It will set the cinder storage back-end to ceph and will make use of LXC as the container back-end.

# export SCENARIO='aio_lxc_barbican_ceph_lxb'
# scripts/bootstrap-aio.sh

To add any global overrides, over and above the defaults for the applicable scenario, edit /etc/openstack_deploy/user_variables.yml. In order to understand the various ways that you can override the default behaviour set out in the roles, playbook and group variables, see Overriding default configuration.

See the Deployment Guide for a more detailed break down of how to implement your own configuration rather than to use the AIO bootstrap.

Run playbooks

Finally, run the playbooks by executing:

# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/playbooks
# openstack-ansible setup-hosts.yml
# openstack-ansible setup-infrastructure.yml
# openstack-ansible setup-openstack.yml

The installation process will take a while to complete, but here are some general estimates:

  • Bare metal systems with SSD storage: ~ 30-50 minutes

  • Virtual machines with SSD storage: ~ 45-60 minutes

  • Systems with traditional hard disks: ~ 90-120 minutes

Once the playbooks have fully executed, it is possible to experiment with various settings changes in /etc/openstack_deploy/user_variables.yml and only run individual playbooks. For example, to run the playbook for the Keystone service, execute:

# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/playbooks
# openstack-ansible os-keystone-install.yml

Interacting with an AIO

Once an AIO has been deployed, you most likely want to interact with it. You can do this via the web interface or one of the many clients or libraries that exist for OpenStack.

Using a GUI

The horizon web interface provides a graphical interface for interacting with the AIO deployment. By default, the horizon API is available on port 443 of the host (or port 80, if SSL certificate configuration was disabled). As such, to interact with horizon, simply browse to the IP of the host.


If the AIO was deployed in a cloud VM, you may need to configure security groups or firewall rules to allow access to the HTTP(S) ports. For example, if the AIO was deployed in an OpenStack VM, you can create and apply a suitable security group for interacting with horizon like so:

$ openstack security group create http \
    --description 'Allow HTTP and HTTPS access'
$ openstack security group rule create http \
    --protocol tcp --dst-port 80 --remote-ip
$ openstack security group rule create http \
    --protocol tcp --dst-port 443 --remote-ip
$ openstack server add security group $SERVER http

A list of service ports can be found in the OpenStack Install Guide.

This will present a login page. By default, OpenStack-Ansible create a user called admin. The password will be the value of the keystone_auth_admin_password variable. If you did not configure this variable, OpenStack-Ansible auto-generates one. You can view the configured password in the /etc/openstack_deploy/user_secrets.yml file.

# grep admin_pass /etc/openstack_deploy/user_secrets.yml
heat_stack_domain_admin_password: <redacted>
keystone_auth_admin_password: <redacted>
radosgw_admin_password: <redacted>

Using this username and password combination, log in to horizon.

Using a client or library

There are a variety of clients and libraries available for interacting with an OpenStack deployment, including as openstackclient, openstacksdk, or gophercloud. These are typically configured using either environment variables sourced from an openrc file or the newer clouds.yaml file.

OpenStack-Ansible provides the openstack_openrc role for creating these configuration files as well as a number of utilities such as openstackclient. If the AIO deployment using the lxc scenario (the default), these will be availably in the utility container.

$ lxc-attach -n `lxc-ls -1 | grep utility`

# ls /root/openrc

# ls /root/.config/openstack/clouds.yaml

# export OS_CLOUD=default
# openstack project list -c Name -f value

Alternatively, if the AIO was deployed using the metal scenario, these files will be available on the host itself.

# ls /root/openrc

# ls /root/.config/openstack/clouds.yaml

If you wish to access the AIO deployment from another host - perhaps your local workstation - you will need either an openrc file or clouds.yaml file. You can download an openrc file from horizon: simply click the User dropdown in the top-right corner and select ⭳ OpenStack RC file.


You may be tempted to copy the openrc or clouds.yaml files created by the openstack_openrc role. However, these files use the internal interface by default. This interface use the management network ( , which is not routable from outside the host. If you wish to use these files, you will need to change the interface to public.


If the AIO was deployed in a cloud VM, you may need to configure security groups or firewall rules to allow access to the various sevice ports. For example, if the AIO was deployed in an OpenStack VM, you can create and apply a suitable security group for interacting the core services like so:

$ openstack security group create openstack-apis \
    --description 'Allow access to various OpenStack services'
$ for port in 8774 8776 9292 9696 5000 8780; do
    openstack security group rule create openstack-apis \
      --protocol tcp --dst-port ${port}:${port} --remote-ip
$ openstack server add security group $SERVER openstack-apis

A list of service ports can be found in the OpenStack Install Guide.


If you have enabled SSL certificate configuration (default), all services will use self-signed certificates. While the host is configured to trust these certificates, this is not the case for other hosts. This will result in HTTPS errors when attempting to interact with the cloud. To resolve this issue, you will need to manually configure certificates on other hosts or ignore SSL issues. To use the self-signed certificate, first copy it to the other hosts. The name and location of the generated certificate are configured by the pki_authorities and pki_trust_store_location variables respectively, which are used by the pki role provided by ansible-role-pki. On an Ubuntu 22.04 host, these will default to ExampleCorpRoot and /usr/local/share/ca-certificates, respectively. For example:

$ scp aio:/usr/local/share/ca-certificates/ExampleCorpRoot.crt ~/.config/openstack/aio.crt

Once this is done, configure the cacert value in the the definition for your cloud in clouds.yaml. For example:

    # ...
    cacert: /home/<username>/.config/openstack/aio.crt

Alternatively, you can simply ignore SSL issues by setting verify: false in the definition for your cloud in clouds.yaml. This will disable SSL verification entirely for this cloud. For example:

    # ...
    verify: false

Finally, you can also opt to disable SSL certificate configuration during initial deployment or opt to use an external certificate authority for signing, such as Lets Encrypt. Both topics are outside the scope of this document.

More information about SSL certificate configuration can be found in the security guide.

Once one of these files have been created, you can use it to interact with your deployment using most standard clients and libraries. For example, to list available projects using openstackclient:

$ export OS_CLOUD=aio
$ openstack project list -c Name -f value

Rebooting an AIO

As the AIO includes all three cluster members of MariaDB/Galera, the cluster has to be re-initialized after the host is rebooted.

This is done by executing the following:

# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/playbooks
# openstack-ansible -e galera_ignore_cluster_state=true galera-install.yml

If this fails to get the database cluster back into a running state, then please make use of the Galera Cluster Recovery section in the operations guide.

Rebuilding an AIO

Sometimes it may be useful to destroy all the containers and rebuild the AIO. While it is preferred that the AIO is entirely destroyed and rebuilt, this isn’t always practical. As such the following may be executed instead:

# # Move to the playbooks directory.
# cd /opt/openstack-ansible/playbooks

# # Destroy all of the running containers.
# openstack-ansible lxc-containers-destroy.yml

# # On the host stop all of the services that run locally and not
# #  within a container.
# for i in \
       $(ls /etc/init \
         | grep -e "nova\|swift\|neutron\|cinder" \
         | awk -F'.' '{print $1}'); do \
    service $i stop; \

# # Uninstall the core services that were installed.
# for i in $(pip freeze | grep -e "nova\|neutron\|keystone\|swift\|cinder"); do \
    pip uninstall -y $i; done

# # Remove crusty directories.
# rm -rf /openstack /etc/{neutron,nova,swift,cinder} \

# # Remove the pip configuration files on the host
# rm -rf /root/.pip

# # Remove the apt package manager proxy
# rm /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/00apt-cacher-proxy

Should an existing AIO environment need to be reinstalled, the most efficient method is to destroy the host operating system and start over. For this reason, AIOs are best run inside of some form of virtual machine or cloud guest.

Reference Diagram for an AIO Build

Here is a basic diagram that attempts to illustrate what the resulting AIO deployment looks like.

This diagram is not to scale and is not even 100% accurate, this diagram was built for informational purposes only and should ONLY be used as such.

          ------->[ ETH0 == Public Network ]
          V                        [  *   ] Socket Connections
[ HOST MACHINE ]                   [ <>v^ ] Network Connections
  *       ^  *
  |       |  |-------------------------------------------------------
  |       |                                                         |
  |       |---------------->[ HAProxy ]                             |
  |                                 ^                               |
  |                                 |                               |
  |                                 V                               |
  |                          (BR-Interfaces)<------                 |
  |                                  ^     *      |                 |
  *-[ LXC ]*--*----------------------|-----|------|----|            |
  |           |                      |     |      |  | |            |
  |           |                      |     |      |  | |            |
  |           |                      |     |      |  | |            |
  |           |                      |     |      V  * |            |
  |           *                      |     |   [ Galera x3 ]        |
  |        [ Memcached ]<------------|     |           |            |
  *-------*[ Rsyslog ]<--------------|--|  |           *            |
  |        [ Repos Server x3 ]<------|  ---|-->[ RabbitMQ x3 ]      |
  |        [ Horizon x2 ]<-----------|  |  |                        |
  |        [ Nova api ec2 ]<---------|--|  |                        |
  |        [ Nova api os ]<----------|->|  |                        |
  |        [ Nova console ]<---------|  |  |                        |
  |        [ Nova Cert ]<------------|->|  |                        |
  |        [ Cinder api ]<-----------|->|  |                        |
  |        [ Glance api ]<-----------|->|  |                        |
  |        [ Heat apis ]<------------|->|  | [ Loop back devices ]*-*
  |        [ Heat engine ]<----------|->|  |    \        \          |
  | ------>[ Nova api metadata ]     |  |  |    { LVM }  { XFS x3 } |
  | |      [ Nova conductor ]<-------|  |  |       *         *      |
  | |----->[ Nova scheduler ]--------|->|  |       |         |      |
  | |      [ Keystone x3 ]<----------|->|  |       |         |      |
  | | |--->[ Neutron agents ]*-------|--|---------------------------*
  | | |    [ Neutron server ]<-------|->|          |         |      |
  | | | |->[ Swift proxy ]<-----------  |          |         |      |
  *-|-|-|-*[ Cinder volume ]*----------------------*         |      |
  | | | |                               |                    |      |
  | | | -----------------------------------------            |      |
  | | ----------------------------------------- |            |      |
  | |          -------------------------|     | |            |      |
  | |          |                              | |            |      |
  | |          V                              | |            *      |
  ---->[ Compute ]*[ Neutron linuxbridge ]<---| |->[ Swift storage ]-