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Routed environment example

This section describes an example production environment for a working OpenStack-Ansible (OSA) deployment with high availability services where provider networks and connectivity between physical machines are routed (layer 3).

This example environment has the following characteristics:

  • Three infrastructure (control plane) hosts

  • Two compute hosts

  • One NFS storage device

  • One log aggregation host

  • Multiple Network Interface Cards (NIC) configured as bonded pairs for each host

  • Full compute kit with the Telemetry service (ceilometer) included, with NFS configured as a storage backend for the Image (glance), and Block Storage (cinder) services

  • Static routes are added to allow communication between the Management, Tunnel, and Storage Networks of each pod. The gateway address is the first usable address within each network’s subnet.

../../_images/arch-layout-production.png

Network configuration

Network CIDR/VLAN assignments

The following CIDR assignments are used for this environment.

Network

CIDR

VLAN

POD 1 Management Network

172.29.236.0/24

10

POD 1 Tunnel (VXLAN) Network

172.29.237.0/24

30

POD 1 Storage Network

172.29.238.0/24

20

POD 2 Management Network

172.29.239.0/24

10

POD 2 Tunnel (VXLAN) Network

172.29.240.0/24

30

POD 2 Storage Network

172.29.241.0/24

20

POD 3 Management Network

172.29.242.0/24

10

POD 3 Tunnel (VXLAN) Network

172.29.243.0/24

30

POD 3 Storage Network

172.29.244.0/24

20

POD 4 Management Network

172.29.245.0/24

10

POD 4 Tunnel (VXLAN) Network

172.29.246.0/24

30

POD 4 Storage Network

172.29.247.0/24

20

IP assignments

The following host name and IP address assignments are used for this environment.

Host name

Management IP

Tunnel (VxLAN) IP

Storage IP

lb_vip_address

172.29.236.9

infra1

172.29.236.10

172.29.237.10

infra2

172.29.239.10

172.29.240.10

infra3

172.29.242.10

172.29.243.10

log1

172.29.236.11

NFS Storage

172.29.244.15

compute1

172.29.245.10

172.29.246.10

172.29.247.10

compute2

172.29.245.11

172.29.246.11

172.29.247.11

Host network configuration

Each host will require the correct network bridges to be implemented. The following is the /etc/network/interfaces file for infra1.

Note

If your environment does not have eth0, but instead has p1p1 or some other interface name, ensure that all references to eth0 in all configuration files are replaced with the appropriate name. The same applies to additional network interfaces.

# This is a multi-NIC bonded configuration to implement the required bridges
# for OpenStack-Ansible. This illustrates the configuration of the first
# Infrastructure host and the IP addresses assigned should be adapted
# for implementation on the other hosts.
#
# After implementing this configuration, the host will need to be
# rebooted.

# Assuming that eth0/1 and eth2/3 are dual port NIC's we pair
# eth0 with eth2 and eth1 with eth3 for increased resiliency
# in the case of one interface card failing.
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet manual
    bond-master bond0
    bond-primary eth0

auto eth1
iface eth1 inet manual
    bond-master bond1
    bond-primary eth1

auto eth2
iface eth2 inet manual
    bond-master bond0

auto eth3
iface eth3 inet manual
    bond-master bond1

# Create a bonded interface. Note that the "bond-slaves" is set to none. This
# is because the bond-master has already been set in the raw interfaces for
# the new bond0.
auto bond0
iface bond0 inet manual
    bond-slaves none
    bond-mode active-backup
    bond-miimon 100
    bond-downdelay 200
    bond-updelay 200

# This bond will carry VLAN and VXLAN traffic to ensure isolation from
# control plane traffic on bond0.
auto bond1
iface bond1 inet manual
    bond-slaves none
    bond-mode active-backup
    bond-miimon 100
    bond-downdelay 250
    bond-updelay 250

# Container/Host management VLAN interface
auto bond0.10
iface bond0.10 inet manual
    vlan-raw-device bond0

# OpenStack Networking VXLAN (tunnel/overlay) VLAN interface
auto bond1.30
iface bond1.30 inet manual
    vlan-raw-device bond1

# Storage network VLAN interface (optional)
auto bond0.20
iface bond0.20 inet manual
    vlan-raw-device bond0

# Container/Host management bridge
auto br-mgmt
iface br-mgmt inet static
    bridge_stp off
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports bond0.10
    address 172.29.236.10
    netmask 255.255.255.0
    gateway 172.29.236.1
    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4

# OpenStack Networking VXLAN (tunnel/overlay) bridge
#
# The COMPUTE, NETWORK and INFRA nodes must have an IP address
# on this bridge.
#
auto br-vxlan
iface br-vxlan inet static
    bridge_stp off
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports bond1.30
    address 172.29.237.10
    netmask 255.255.252.0

# OpenStack Networking VLAN bridge
auto br-vlan
iface br-vlan inet manual
    bridge_stp off
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports bond1

# compute1 Network VLAN bridge
#auto br-vlan
#iface br-vlan inet manual
#    bridge_stp off
#    bridge_waitport 0
#    bridge_fd 0
#
# For tenant vlan support, create a veth pair to be used when the neutron
# agent is not containerized on the compute hosts. 'eth12' is the value used on
# the host_bind_override parameter of the br-vlan network section of the
# openstack_user_config example file. The veth peer name must match the value
# specified on the host_bind_override parameter.
#
# When the neutron agent is containerized it will use the container_interface
# value of the br-vlan network, which is also the same 'eth12' value.
#
# Create veth pair, do not abort if already exists
#    pre-up ip link add br-vlan-veth type veth peer name eth12 || true
# Set both ends UP
#    pre-up ip link set br-vlan-veth up
#    pre-up ip link set eth12 up
# Delete veth pair on DOWN
#    post-down ip link del br-vlan-veth || true
#    bridge_ports bond1 br-vlan-veth

# Storage bridge (optional)
#
# Only the COMPUTE and STORAGE nodes must have an IP address
# on this bridge. When used by infrastructure nodes, the
# IP addresses are assigned to containers which use this
# bridge.
#
auto br-storage
iface br-storage inet manual
    bridge_stp off
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports bond0.20

# compute1 Storage bridge
#auto br-storage
#iface br-storage inet static
#    bridge_stp off
#    bridge_waitport 0
#    bridge_fd 0
#    bridge_ports bond0.20
#    address 172.29.247.10
#    netmask 255.255.255.0

Deployment configuration

Environment layout

The /etc/openstack_deploy/openstack_user_config.yml file defines the environment layout.

For each pod, a group will need to be defined containing all hosts within that pod.

Within defined provider networks, address_prefix is used to override the prefix of the key added to each host that contains IP address information. This should usually be one of either container, tunnel, or storage. reference_group contains the name of a defined pod group and is used to limit the scope of each provider network to that group.

Static routes are added to allow communication of provider networks between pods.

The following configuration describes the layout for this environment.

---
cidr_networks:
  pod1_container: 172.29.236.0/24
  pod2_container: 172.29.237.0/24
  pod3_container: 172.29.238.0/24
  pod4_container: 172.29.239.0/24
  pod1_tunnel: 172.29.240.0/24
  pod2_tunnel: 172.29.241.0/24
  pod3_tunnel: 172.29.242.0/24
  pod4_tunnel: 172.29.243.0/24
  pod1_storage: 172.29.244.0/24
  pod2_storage: 172.29.245.0/24
  pod3_storage: 172.29.246.0/24
  pod4_storage: 172.29.247.0/24

used_ips:
  - "172.29.236.1,172.29.236.50"
  - "172.29.237.1,172.29.237.50"
  - "172.29.238.1,172.29.238.50"
  - "172.29.239.1,172.29.239.50"
  - "172.29.240.1,172.29.240.50"
  - "172.29.241.1,172.29.241.50"
  - "172.29.242.1,172.29.242.50"
  - "172.29.243.1,172.29.243.50"
  - "172.29.244.1,172.29.244.50"
  - "172.29.245.1,172.29.245.50"
  - "172.29.246.1,172.29.246.50"
  - "172.29.247.1,172.29.247.50"

global_overrides:
  internal_lb_vip_address: internal-openstack.example.com
  #
  # The below domain name must resolve to an IP address
  # in the CIDR specified in haproxy_keepalived_external_vip_cidr.
  # If using different protocols (https/http) for the public/internal
  # endpoints the two addresses must be different.
  #
  external_lb_vip_address: openstack.example.com
  management_bridge: "br-mgmt"
  provider_networks:
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-mgmt"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth1"
        ip_from_q: "pod1_container"
        address_prefix: "container"
        type: "raw"
        group_binds:
          - all_containers
          - hosts
        reference_group: "pod1_hosts"
        is_container_address: true
        # Containers in pod1 need routes to the container networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to container networks
          - cidr: 172.29.236.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.236.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-mgmt"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth1"
        ip_from_q: "pod2_container"
        address_prefix: "container"
        type: "raw"
        group_binds:
          - all_containers
          - hosts
        reference_group: "pod2_hosts"
        is_container_address: true
        # Containers in pod2 need routes to the container networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to container networks
          - cidr: 172.29.236.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.237.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-mgmt"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth1"
        ip_from_q: "pod3_container"
        address_prefix: "container"
        type: "raw"
        group_binds:
          - all_containers
          - hosts
        reference_group: "pod3_hosts"
        is_container_address: true
        # Containers in pod3 need routes to the container networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to container networks
          - cidr: 172.29.236.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.238.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-mgmt"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth1"
        ip_from_q: "pod4_container"
        address_prefix: "container"
        type: "raw"
        group_binds:
          - all_containers
          - hosts
        reference_group: "pod4_hosts"
        is_container_address: true
        # Containers in pod4 need routes to the container networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to container networks
          - cidr: 172.29.236.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.239.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-vxlan"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth10"
        ip_from_q: "pod1_tunnel"
        address_prefix: "tunnel"
        type: "vxlan"
        range: "1:1000"
        net_name: "vxlan"
        group_binds:
          - neutron_linuxbridge_agent
        reference_group: "pod1_hosts"
        # Containers in pod1 need routes to the tunnel networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to tunnel networks
          - cidr: 172.29.240.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.240.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-vxlan"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth10"
        ip_from_q: "pod2_tunnel"
        address_prefix: "tunnel"
        type: "vxlan"
        range: "1:1000"
        net_name: "vxlan"
        group_binds:
          - neutron_linuxbridge_agent
        reference_group: "pod2_hosts"
        # Containers in pod2 need routes to the tunnel networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to tunnel networks
          - cidr: 172.29.240.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.241.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-vxlan"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth10"
        ip_from_q: "pod3_tunnel"
        address_prefix: "tunnel"
        type: "vxlan"
        range: "1:1000"
        net_name: "vxlan"
        group_binds:
          - neutron_linuxbridge_agent
        reference_group: "pod3_hosts"
        # Containers in pod3 need routes to the tunnel networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to tunnel networks
          - cidr: 172.29.240.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.242.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-vxlan"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth10"
        ip_from_q: "pod4_tunnel"
        address_prefix: "tunnel"
        type: "vxlan"
        range: "1:1000"
        net_name: "vxlan"
        group_binds:
          - neutron_linuxbridge_agent
        reference_group: "pod4_hosts"
        # Containers in pod4 need routes to the tunnel networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to tunnel networks
          - cidr: 172.29.240.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.243.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-vlan"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth12"
        host_bind_override: "eth12"
        type: "flat"
        net_name: "flat"
        group_binds:
          - neutron_linuxbridge_agent
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-vlan"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth11"
        type: "vlan"
        range: "101:200,301:400"
        net_name: "vlan"
        group_binds:
          - neutron_linuxbridge_agent
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-storage"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth2"
        ip_from_q: "pod1_storage"
        address_prefix: "storage"
        type: "raw"
        group_binds:
          - glance_api
          - cinder_api
          - cinder_volume
          - nova_compute
        reference_group: "pod1_hosts"
        # Containers in pod1 need routes to the storage networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to storage networks
          - cidr: 172.29.244.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.244.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-storage"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth2"
        ip_from_q: "pod2_storage"
        address_prefix: "storage"
        type: "raw"
        group_binds:
          - glance_api
          - cinder_api
          - cinder_volume
          - nova_compute
        reference_group: "pod2_hosts"
        # Containers in pod2 need routes to the storage networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to storage networks
          - cidr: 172.29.244.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.245.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-storage"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth2"
        ip_from_q: "pod3_storage"
        address_prefix: "storage"
        type: "raw"
        group_binds:
          - glance_api
          - cinder_api
          - cinder_volume
          - nova_compute
        reference_group: "pod3_hosts"
        # Containers in pod3 need routes to the storage networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to storage networks
          - cidr: 172.29.244.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.246.1
    - network:
        container_bridge: "br-storage"
        container_type: "veth"
        container_interface: "eth2"
        ip_from_q: "pod4_storage"
        address_prefix: "storage"
        type: "raw"
        group_binds:
          - glance_api
          - cinder_api
          - cinder_volume
          - nova_compute
        reference_group: "pod4_hosts"
        # Containers in pod4 need routes to the storage networks of other pods
        static_routes:
          # Route to storage networks
          - cidr: 172.29.244.0/22
            gateway: 172.29.247.1

###
### Infrastructure
###

pod1_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  log1:
    ip: 172.29.236.11

pod2_hosts:
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10

pod3_hosts:
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

pod4_hosts:
  compute1:
    ip: 172.29.245.10
  compute2:
    ip: 172.29.245.11

# galera, memcache, rabbitmq, utility
shared-infra_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# repository (apt cache, python packages, etc)
repo-infra_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# load balancer
# Ideally the load balancer should not use the Infrastructure hosts.
# Dedicated hardware is best for improved performance and security.
haproxy_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# rsyslog server
log_hosts:
  log1:
    ip: 172.29.236.11

###
### OpenStack
###

# keystone
identity_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# cinder api services
storage-infra_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# glance
# The settings here are repeated for each infra host.
# They could instead be applied as global settings in
# user_variables, but are left here to illustrate that
# each container could have different storage targets.
image_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.11
    container_vars:
      limit_container_types: glance
      glance_nfs_client:
        - server: "172.29.244.15"
          remote_path: "/images"
          local_path: "/var/lib/glance/images"
          type: "nfs"
          options: "_netdev,auto"
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.236.12
    container_vars:
      limit_container_types: glance
      glance_nfs_client:
        - server: "172.29.244.15"
          remote_path: "/images"
          local_path: "/var/lib/glance/images"
          type: "nfs"
          options: "_netdev,auto"
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.236.13
    container_vars:
      limit_container_types: glance
      glance_nfs_client:
        - server: "172.29.244.15"
          remote_path: "/images"
          local_path: "/var/lib/glance/images"
          type: "nfs"
          options: "_netdev,auto"

# nova api, conductor, etc services
compute-infra_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# heat
orchestration_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# horizon
dashboard_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# neutron server, agents (L3, etc)
network_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# ceilometer (telemetry data collection)
metering-infra_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# aodh (telemetry alarm service)
metering-alarm_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# gnocchi (telemetry metrics storage)
metrics_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.10
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.239.10
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.242.10

# nova hypervisors
compute_hosts:
  compute1:
    ip: 172.29.245.10
  compute2:
    ip: 172.29.245.11

# ceilometer compute agent (telemetry data collection)
metering-compute_hosts:
  compute1:
    ip: 172.29.245.10
  compute2:
    ip: 172.29.245.11

# cinder volume hosts (NFS-backed)
# The settings here are repeated for each infra host.
# They could instead be applied as global settings in
# user_variables, but are left here to illustrate that
# each container could have different storage targets.
storage_hosts:
  infra1:
    ip: 172.29.236.11
    container_vars:
      cinder_backends:
        limit_container_types: cinder_volume
        nfs_volume:
          volume_backend_name: NFS_VOLUME1
          volume_driver: cinder.volume.drivers.nfs.NfsDriver
          nfs_mount_options: "rsize=65535,wsize=65535,timeo=1200,actimeo=120"
          nfs_shares_config: /etc/cinder/nfs_shares
          shares:
            - ip: "172.29.244.15"
              share: "/vol/cinder"
  infra2:
    ip: 172.29.236.12
    container_vars:
      cinder_backends:
        limit_container_types: cinder_volume
        nfs_volume:
          volume_backend_name: NFS_VOLUME1
          volume_driver: cinder.volume.drivers.nfs.NfsDriver
          nfs_mount_options: "rsize=65535,wsize=65535,timeo=1200,actimeo=120"
          nfs_shares_config: /etc/cinder/nfs_shares
          shares:
            - ip: "172.29.244.15"
              share: "/vol/cinder"
  infra3:
    ip: 172.29.236.13
    container_vars:
      cinder_backends:
        limit_container_types: cinder_volume
        nfs_volume:
          volume_backend_name: NFS_VOLUME1
          volume_driver: cinder.volume.drivers.nfs.NfsDriver
          nfs_mount_options: "rsize=65535,wsize=65535,timeo=1200,actimeo=120"
          nfs_shares_config: /etc/cinder/nfs_shares
          shares:
            - ip: "172.29.244.15"
              share: "/vol/cinder"

Environment customizations

The optionally deployed files in /etc/openstack_deploy/env.d allow the customization of Ansible groups. This allows the deployer to set whether the services will run in a container (the default), or on the host (on metal).

For this environment, the cinder-volume runs in a container on the infrastructure hosts. To achieve this, implement /etc/openstack_deploy/env.d/cinder.yml with the following content:

---
# This file contains an example to show how to set
# the cinder-volume service to run in a container.
#
# Important note:
# When using LVM or any iSCSI-based cinder backends, such as NetApp with
# iSCSI protocol, the cinder-volume service *must* run on metal.
# Reference: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/lxc/+bug/1226855

container_skel:
  cinder_volumes_container:
    properties:
      is_metal: false

User variables

The /etc/openstack_deploy/user_variables.yml file defines the global overrides for the default variables.

For this environment, implement the load balancer on the infrastructure hosts. Ensure that keepalived is also configured with HAProxy in /etc/openstack_deploy/user_variables.yml with the following content.

---
# This file contains an example of the global variable overrides
# which may need to be set for a production environment.

## Load Balancer Configuration (haproxy/keepalived)
haproxy_keepalived_external_vip_cidr: "<external_vip_address>/<netmask>"
haproxy_keepalived_internal_vip_cidr: "172.29.236.0/22"
haproxy_keepalived_external_interface: ens2
haproxy_keepalived_internal_interface: br-mgmt