Deploying TLS-everywhere

Setting up TLS-everywhere primarily consists of a few additional steps you need to take on the undercloud and FreeIPA server. These steps consist of installing additional packages and enrolling the undercloud host as a FreeIPA client.

The OpenStack release you are deploying affects which tools you can use to deploy TLS-everywhere. For deployments using Queens through Stein you must use Novajoin. For deployments using Train or Ussuri, you can use either Novajoin or tripleo-ipa. For deployments using Victoria or newer releases you must use tripleo-ipa. Deployments Using Already Deployed Servers must also use tripleo-ipa. We recommend using tripleo-ipa whenever possible. Let’s walk through each step using both tripleo-ipa and Novajoin.

You can find a primer on the various TLS deployment strategies and components in the TLS Introduction documentation.

TLS-everywhere with tripleo-ipa

Note

This deployment strategy is only supported on Train and newer releases. If you’re deploying a version older than Train, you’ll need to use Novajoin to accomplish TLS-everywhere, which is documented below.

Do the following steps before deploying your undercloud.

Configure DNS

TLS-everywhere deployments use FreeIPA as the DNS server. You need to set the proper search domain and nameserver on the undercloud. To do this, you need to know the deployment domain, the domain of the FreeIPA server, and the FreeIPA server’s IP address. For example, if the deployment domain is example.com and the FreeIPA server domain is bigcorp.com, you should set the following in /etc/resolv.conf:

search example.com bigcorp.com
nameserver $FREEIPA_IP_ADDRESS

This step ensures the undercloud can resolve newly added hosts and services after TripleO enrolls them as FreeIPA clients. You only need to add both search domains if they’re different. If the FreeIPA server is using the same domain as the deployment you only need to specify the deployment domain.

Configure FreeIPA

Note

This section assumes you have permissions to make writeable changes to your FreeIPA server. If you don’t have those permissions or direct access to the FreeIPA server, you’ll need to contact your FreeIPA administrator and have them perform the following steps either using ansible scripts or manually.

Before you configure the undercloud, you need to ensure FreeIPA is configured with the correct principal and privileges. This allows the undercloud to add new hosts, services, and DNS records in FreeIPA during the overcloud installation.

The undercloud will enroll itself as a FreeIPA client and download a keytab to use for authentication during the installation process. To do this, it needs a one-time password (OTP) from FreeIPA that you configure in undercloud.conf.

You can generate the OTP manually if you have the correct permissions to add hosts, modify permissions, update roles, and create principals in FreeIPA. You need to perform these actions from an existing FreeIPA client. Note, the FreeIPA server itself is enrolled as a client.

You can find a set of playbooks in tripleo-ipa that automate creating permissions, hosts, and principals for the undercloud. These playbooks expect the IPA_PRINCIPAL, which is a user in FreeIPA, to have the necessary permissions to perform the tasks in each playbook (e.g., ipa privilege-add-permission, ipa host-add, etc). They also expect you to generate a kerberos token before executing each playbook.

Create a FreeIPA role

First, you need to create a new FreeIPA role with the appropriate permissions for managing hosts, principals, services, and DNS entries:

$ kinit
$ export IPA_PASSWORD=$IPA_PASSWORD
$ export IPA_PRINCIPAL=$IPA_USER
$ export UNDERCLOUD_FQDN=undercloud.example.com
$ ansible-playbook /usr/share/ansible/tripleo-playbooks/ipa-server-create-role.yaml

Register the undercloud

Next, you need to register the undercloud as a FreeIPA client and generate a OTP that the undercloud will use for enrollment, which is necessary before it can manage entities in FreeIPA:

$ export IPA_PASSWORD=$IPA_PASSWORD
$ export IPA_PRINCIPAL=$IPA_USER
$ export UNDERCLOUD_FQDN=undercloud.example.com
$ ansible-playbook /usr/share/ansible/tripleo-playbooks/ipa-server-register-undercloud.yaml

If successful, the ansible output will contain an OTP. Save this OTP because you will need it when you configure the undercloud.

Create a principal

Finally, create a FreeIPA principal and grant it the necessary permissions to manage hosts, services, and DNS entries in FreeIPA:

$ export IPA_PASSWORD=$IPA_PASSWORD
$ export IPA_PRINCIPAL=$IPA_USER
$ export UNDERCLOUD_FQDN=undercloud.example.com
$ ansible-playbook /usr/share/ansible/tripleo-playbooks/ipa-server-create-principal.yaml

Configure the Undercloud

Warning

This section only provides guidance for configuring TLS-everywhere. You need to make sure your undercloud configuration is complete before starting the undercloud installation process.

Set the following variables in undercloud.conf:

ipa_otp = $OTP
overcloud_domain_name = example.com
undercloud_nameservers = $FREEIPA_IP_ADDRESS

Your undercloud configuration is ready to be deployed and has the necessary changes to allow you to deploy TLS-everywhere for the overcloud.

Undercloud Install

After you’ve had an opportunity to verify all undercloud configuration options, including the options listed above, start the undercloud installation process:

$ openstack undercloud install

Undercloud Verification

You should verify that the undercloud was enrolled properly by listing the hosts in FreeIPA:

$ sudo kinit
$ sudo ipa host-find

You should also confirm that /etc/novajoin/krb5.keytab exists on the undercloud. The novajoin directory name is purely for legacy naming reasons. The keytab is placed in this directory regardless of using novajoin to enroll the undercloud as a FreeIPA client.

You can proceed with the Configuring the Overcloud if the undercloud installation was successful.

TLS-everywhere with Novajoin

Warning

This deployment strategy is only supported up to the Train release. We recommend using tripleo-ipa to accomplish TLS-everywhere in newer releases. Steps for using tripleo-ipa are documented above.

Do the following steps before deploying your undercloud.

Configure DNS

TLS-everywhere deployments use FreeIPA as the DNS server. You need to set the proper search domain and nameserver on the undercloud. To do this, you need to know the deployment domain, the domain of the FreeIPA server, and the FreeIPA server’s IP address. For example, if the deployment domain is example.com and the FreeIPA server domain is bigcorp.com, you should set the following in /etc/resolv.conf:

search example.com bigcorp.com
nameserver $FREEIPA_IP_ADDRESS

This step ensures the undercloud can resolve newly added hosts and services after TripleO enrolls them as FreeIPA clients. You only need to add both search domains if they’re different. If the FreeIPA server is using the same domain as the deployment you only need to specify the deployment domain.

Add Undercloud as a FreeIPA host

Next, you need to add the undercloud as a host in FreeIPA. This will generate a one-time password that TripleO uses to enroll the undercloud as a FreeIPA client, giving the undercloud the permissions it needs to add new hosts, services, and DNS records. You can use the following command-line utility to add the undercloud as a FreeIPA host:

novajoin-ipa-setup \
--principal $IPA_USER \
--password $IPA_PASSWORD \
--server ipa.bigcorp.com \
--realm BIGCORP.COM \
--domain example.com \
--hostname undercloud.example.com \
--precreate

If successful, the command will return a one-time password. Save this password because you will need it later to configure the undercloud.

Configure the Undercloud

Warning

This section only provides guidance for configuring TLS-everywhere. You need to make sure your undercloud configuration is complete before starting the undercloud installation process.

Set the following variables in undercloud.conf:

enable_novajoin = True
ipa_otp = $IPA_OTP
overcloud_domain_name = example.com

Your undercloud configuration is ready to be deployed and has the necessary changes to allow you to deploy TLS-everywhere for the overcloud.

Undercloud Install

After you’ve had an opportunity to verify all undercloud configuration options, including the options listed above, start the undercloud installation process:

$ openstack undercloud install

Undercloud Verification

You should verify that the undercloud was enrolled properly by listing the hosts in FreeIPA:

$ sudo kinit
$ sudo ipa host-find

You should also confirm that /etc/novajoin/krb5.keytab exists on the undercloud and that the novajoin and novajoin-notifier services are running.

You can proceed with the Configuring the Overcloud if the undercloud installation was successful.

Configuring the Overcloud

TLS-everywhere requires you to set extra parameters and templates before you deploy, or update, your overcloud. These changes consist of settings domain information and including additional heat templates in your deploy command. Let’s walk through each step individually.

Set Parameters

Next, you need to set parameters so that TripleO knows where to find your FreeIPA server and configures DNS. You need to set these variables so that TripleO adds DNS records that map to the correct hosts. Let’s continue assuming we have a file called tls-parameters.yaml and it contains the following parameter_defaults section:

parameter_defaults:
  DnsSearchDomains: ["example.com"]
  DnsServers: ["192.168.1.13"]
  CloudDomain: example.com
  CloudName: overcloud.example.com
  CloudNameInternal: overcloud.internalapi.example.com
  CloudNameStorage: overcloud.storage.example.com
  CloudNameStorageManagement: overcloud.storagemgmt.example.com
  CloudNameCtlplane: overcloud.ctlplane.example.com

Note

If you are using deployed servers, you must also specify the following parameters:

IdMInstallClientPackages: True

This option is required to install packages needed to enroll overcloud hosts as FreeIPA clients. Deployments using Novajoin do not require this option since the necessary packages are built into the overcloud images. If you do not specify this argument, you need to ensure dependencies for ansible-freeipa are present on the overcloud servers before deploying the overcloud.

The DnsServers value above assumes we have FreeIPA available at 192.168.1.13.

It’s important to note that you will need to update the DnsSearchDomains to include the domain of the IPA server if it’s different than the CloudDomain. For example, if your CloudDomain is example.com and your IPA server is located at ipa.bigcorp.com, then you need to include bigcorp.com as an additional search domain:

DnsSearchDomains: ["example.com", "bigcorp.com"]

Composable Services

In addition to the parameters above, you might need to update the resource_registry in tls-parameters.yaml to include a composable service. There are two composable services, one for Novajoin and the other is for tripleo-ipa. TripleO uses the Novajoin composable service for deploying TLS-everywhere by default. If you need or want to use tripleo-ipa, you’ll need to update the registry to use a different composable service. Both options are described below.

Novajoin Composable Service

This is the default option but we will update TripleO in the future to use tripleo-ipa by default. At that point, you may need to add the following composable service to the resource_registry in tls-parameters.yaml:

resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::Services::IpaClient: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/deployment/ipa/ipaclient-baremetal-ansible.yaml

tripleo-ipa Composable Service

If you’re deploying TLS-everwhere with tripleo-ipa, you need to override the default Novajoin composable service. Add the following composable service to the resource_registry in tls-parameters.yaml:

resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::Services::IpaClient: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/deployment/ipa/ipaservices-baremetal-ansible.yaml

Remember, this is going to be the default method of deploying TLS-everywhere as of the Victoria release.

Specify Templates

At this point, you should have all the settings configured for a successful TLS-everywhere deployment. The only remaining step is to include the following templates in your overcloud deploy command:

$ openstack overcloud deploy \
-e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ssl/tls-everywhere-endpoints-dns.yaml \
-e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services/haproxy-public-tls-certmonger.yaml \
-e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ssl/enable-internal-tls.yaml \
-e tls-parameters.yaml

Remember, tls-parameters.yaml is the file containing the parameters above.

Overcloud Verification

After the overcloud is deployed, you can confirm each endpoint is using HTTPS by querying keystone’s endpoints:

$ openstack --os-cloud overcloud endpoint list

Deleting Overclouds

Note

This functionality is only invoked when you use the openstack overcloud delete command using Train or newer releases. The overcloud is technically a heat stack, but using openstack stack delete will not clean up FreeIPA.

Note

This section is only applicable to deployments using tripleo-ipa. Novajoin cleans up FreeIPA after consuming notifications about instance deletion.

The python-tripleoclient CLI cleans up hosts, services, and DNS records in FreeIPA when you delete an overcloud:

$ openstack overcloud delete overcloud

You can verify the hosts, services, DNS records were removed by querying FreeIPA:

$ kinit
$ ipa host-find
$ ipa service-find
$ ipa dnsrecord-find example.com.

The undercloud host, service, and DNS records are untouched when deleting overclouds. Overcloud hosts, services, and DNS records are re-added to FreeIPA during subsequent deployments.

If you don’t want to clean up FreeIPA when you delete your overcloud, you can use the openstack overcloud delete --skip-ipa-cleanup parameter. This option leaves all overcloud hosts, services, and DNS records in FreeIPA. You might find this useful if your FreeIPA server is unreachable or if you plan to clean up FreeIPA later.

To clean up FreeIPA manually, you need the Ansible inventory file that describes your deployment. If you don’t have it handy, you can generate one from the undercloud using:

$ source stackrc
$ tripleo-ansible-inventory --static-yaml-inventory generated-inventory.yaml

The utility will generate an inventory file and store it as generated-inventory.yaml. You can invoke the playbook that cleans up FreeIPA using:

$ ansible-playbook -i generated-inventory.yaml /usr/share/ansible/tripleo-playbooks/cli-cleanup-ipa.yml