Using Unified Limits¶
This document contains guidelines and rules for OpenStack projects regarding the usage of Keystone’s unified limits functionality. The items laid out here are based on existing real-world implementations and are provided in order to help ensure consistency among other projects moving to this model. While this document assumes the reader understands the content of the keystone unified limits documentation some concepts are covered here again for consistency.
Keystone provides a “limit” functionality which is effectively a central repository of named numerical resource maximums tied to projects. Each resource limit is “registered” with keystone and given a default value which can be overridden per-project with different values.
Existing in-project quota APIs generally do not have a clean-up process when projects are deleted from Keystone. Further, some also do not verify project identifiers when recording new limits which leads to further cruft. Implementing any sort of complex hierarchy or inheritance would require a lot of information about project relationships which are Keystone’s responsibility.
Why store this in Keystone?¶
Keystone owns the definition of a “project” and as such projects are created and destroyed in Keystone. Since limits (i.e. quotas) are tied to a project, it can be difficult for other services (i.e. Nova, Glance, Cinder, Neutron) to avoid stale limit cruft from accumulating in their databases since they do not get a notification when a project is deleted.
Storing limit information in Keystone means that limits can be cleaned up along with projects, but also that rich information about hierarchies can be applied to the calculation of dynamic limits. It places the resource limit closer to the “primary key” of what is being limited.
So Keystone implements quotas?¶
Keystone does not implement quotas, but implements limits. For the purposes of this document, consider a quota to be a tuple of “a limit on a resource” and “the amount of resource currently being consumed”. The quota is enforced by comparing the amount currently used to the amount allowed at the time that a new resource allocation attempt is made. For example, a service like Cinder implements a quota on disk usage when a new allocation is requested by comparing current allocations to the limit before deciding if the request should be granted.
Keystone does not store or concern itself with the amount of resource currently allocated it only stores the limit: the maximum amount allowed. It is up to the service that owns the resource to do the checking of consumption against the limit to decide whether a resource allocation should be allowed. An Oslo library interface is provided to make this easy.
Is this only relevant for allocate-able or quota-able resources?¶
An important thing to note on the topic of quotas is that all quotas involve a limit, but not all limits imply a quota. Limits can be used for non-quota things such as “the maximum number of metadata items per instance” or “the maximum number of parallel upload requests”. These cases have typically been implemented with static configuration values which apply to all users of a service. By implementing these limits via Keystone it becomes possible to override specific limits per project.
The players involved¶
In order to implement limits in Keystone, the oslo.limit library is provided, and should be used by consumers to do so. This library provides an interface to efficiently query limits from Keystone and generally provides a quota-driven workflow that will directly apply in most cases. Limits queried via the limit library must be registered before use and thus most projects will need devstack changes to make sure that registration happens.
Since looking up limits in Keystone involves making a network request, load on the Keystone server and network can be increased. This lends itself to efforts to cache results, but such efforts should be limited in scope. It is best to avoid caching individual results for longer than the scope of a single request to avoid breaking the ability of an administrator to lower or raise a limit and see immediate results.
An example of a longer-lived result cache that is still limited to a single request is the Glance image upload scenario. When consuming an unbounded image stream we need to look up the limit once and apply that limit to the stream (or result) without hitting Keystone once per block read or anything near as frequent. The lifetime of the cached value is limited to the single upload request.
Use the Enforcer¶
The oslo.limit library provides an Enforcer class for quota-like behaviors which should be used whenever possible. This class allows a batch-driven approach where multiple named resources are presented with functions that calculate current usage which are then compared against the limits to determine whether or not a resource allocation operation should be allowed. It may be tempting to just look up the limits and perform the enforcement in a different way (and in some cases there may be no alternative), but the standard enforcement routines should be used when possible. This helps to ensure consistent application of “current + requested >= limit” behavior, as well as standardized error messages.
Additionally, the Enforcer makes an attempt to coerce the user into a batch-oriented approach to save on round trips to Keystone. The consumer of the library should attempt to conform to this behavior whenever possible.
Counting current usage¶
In some OpenStack projects, early quota implementations focused on a separate accounting record for quota limits and current usage. These tables were intended to exactly track actual usage, as well as temporary reservations to provide air-tight quota enforcement. In practice, they usually drifted out of sync with reality and required manual cleanup and adjustment. A number of projects have moved towards a goal of orienting data structures in a way that they can be easily and efficiently counted at runtime to determine current usage. The tradeoff between being off-by-one in quota enforcement and potentially wildly out of sync with actual consumption has generally preferred the former. Indeed, the Enforcer pattern in oslo.limit receives functions, which are called to calculate current usage, and it is recommended that the implementations of these do that calculation live instead of mere lookups in accounting tables.
Preserve standardized error messages¶
The oslo.limit library provides an Enforcer class and standardized error messages for cases where limits are exceeded. These take a common form of explaining which (named) limit would be exceeded, what the limit is, as well as the current usage and allocation amount attempted. Projects that currently implement quotas will be tempted to preserve their own error messages for compatibility reasons, but it is recommended instead to move towards using the standardized messages. This will help consistency across projects and lead to better understanding of errors by users and operators.
All or none¶
It is recommended that if any unified limits are to be applied, then all of them should be applied. Meaning, it is okay to allow for enabling or disabling quota/limit checking entirely, or to enable “internal limits” vs. “limits in keystone” for projects transitioning. However, it is recommended that if any limits in Keystone are used, then all of them are. Disabling individual quotas, or allowing some quotas to be enforced by limits in keystone and other from internal/legacy sources is confusing. Resource limits in keystone can be set to “unlimited” and it is recommended to use such a limit instead of a boolean enable/disable flag for individual items.
Projects with existing quota systems likely already expose APIs for their users to examine their limits and usage for resources. These APIs should be maintained for exposing usage and limit information but pull the limit information from Keystone if unified limits are used. They should not attempt to maintain full compatibility with quota (limit) management by proxying back to Keystone. These APIs should, in most cases, become read-only (at least with respect to limits) when unified limits are in use. Projects that do not have legacy APIs for this purpose should implement them as they are necessary for proper user behavior.
Keystone does not know about resource consumption and thus cannot provide users information about it. Further, resource limit information is not necessarily something users are permitted to see by talking to Keystone directly. Even if they could, requiring them to look up their limits in one place and their consumption on another is not very friendly. Thus, it is recommended that projects implement quota/usage APIs that provide limits and consumption information in one place.
For an example of a very simple usage API, check the Glance implementation. In the absence of existing APIs or a compelling reason to do something different, this API should serve as a template for new usage APIs for consistency.
Migration to unified limits¶
Projects with existing internal quota systems that are migrating should provide a configuration flag to switch between “internal” and “unified” limits. Projects that are growing new quota functionality with only unified limits from the start may also want a configuration flag to enable or disable quota checking entirely to provide a graceful on-ramp.
The following general set of steps may be helpful in planning the work:
Add a configuration control to allow switching between existing quota systems and unified limits (or enabling unified limits if none exists).
Refactor existing or implement new quota checking code to pull limits from Keystone via oslo.limit if enabled during resource allocation requests.
Refactor existing or implement new quota usage APIs to expose information about current resource consumption and limits.
Extend devstack to support defining resource limits and sane defaults for test jobs for your project.
Add or extend existing tempest tests to validate quota enforcement
Document the functionality for your users, including information about if/when existing quota functionality will be removed, as well as instructions about migrating existing limits into Keystone.