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 Chapter 10. Orchestration

The Orchestration service is designed to manage the lifecycle of infrastructure and applications within OpenStack clouds. Its various agents and services are configured in the /etc/heat/heat.conf file.

To install Orchestration, see the OpenStack Installation Guide for your distribution (

The following tables provide a comprehensive list of the Orchestration configuration options.

Table 10.1. Description of authorization token configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
admin_password = None (StrOpt) Keystone account password
admin_tenant_name = admin (StrOpt) Keystone service account tenant name to validate user tokens
admin_token = None (StrOpt) This option is deprecated and may be removed in a future release. Single shared secret with the Keystone configuration used for bootstrapping a Keystone installation, or otherwise bypassing the normal authentication process. This option should not be used, use `admin_user` and `admin_password` instead.
admin_user = None (StrOpt) Keystone account username
auth_admin_prefix = (StrOpt) Prefix to prepend at the beginning of the path. Deprecated, use identity_uri.
auth_host = (StrOpt) Host providing the admin Identity API endpoint. Deprecated, use identity_uri.
auth_port = 35357 (IntOpt) Port of the admin Identity API endpoint. Deprecated, use identity_uri.
auth_protocol = https (StrOpt) Protocol of the admin Identity API endpoint (http or https). Deprecated, use identity_uri.
auth_uri = None (StrOpt) Complete public Identity API endpoint
auth_version = None (StrOpt) API version of the admin Identity API endpoint
cache = None (StrOpt) Env key for the swift cache
cafile = None (StrOpt) A PEM encoded Certificate Authority to use when verifying HTTPs connections. Defaults to system CAs.
certfile = None (StrOpt) Required if Keystone server requires client certificate
check_revocations_for_cached = False (BoolOpt) If true, the revocation list will be checked for cached tokens. This requires that PKI tokens are configured on the Keystone server.
delay_auth_decision = False (BoolOpt) Do not handle authorization requests within the middleware, but delegate the authorization decision to downstream WSGI components
enforce_token_bind = permissive (StrOpt) Used to control the use and type of token binding. Can be set to: "disabled" to not check token binding. "permissive" (default) to validate binding information if the bind type is of a form known to the server and ignore it if not. "strict" like "permissive" but if the bind type is unknown the token will be rejected. "required" any form of token binding is needed to be allowed. Finally the name of a binding method that must be present in tokens.
hash_algorithms = md5 (ListOpt) Hash algorithms to use for hashing PKI tokens. This may be a single algorithm or multiple. The algorithms are those supported by Python standard The hashes will be tried in the order given, so put the preferred one first for performance. The result of the first hash will be stored in the cache. This will typically be set to multiple values only while migrating from a less secure algorithm to a more secure one. Once all the old tokens are expired this option should be set to a single value for better performance.
http_connect_timeout = None (BoolOpt) Request timeout value for communicating with Identity API server.
http_request_max_retries = 3 (IntOpt) How many times are we trying to reconnect when communicating with Identity API Server.
identity_uri = None (StrOpt) Complete admin Identity API endpoint. This should specify the unversioned root endpoint e.g. https://localhost:35357/
include_service_catalog = True (BoolOpt) (optional) indicate whether to set the X-Service-Catalog header. If False, middleware will not ask for service catalog on token validation and will not set the X-Service-Catalog header.
insecure = False (BoolOpt) Verify HTTPS connections.
keyfile = None (StrOpt) Required if Keystone server requires client certificate
memcache_secret_key = None (StrOpt) (optional, mandatory if memcache_security_strategy is defined) this string is used for key derivation.
memcache_security_strategy = None (StrOpt) (optional) if defined, indicate whether token data should be authenticated or authenticated and encrypted. Acceptable values are MAC or ENCRYPT. If MAC, token data is authenticated (with HMAC) in the cache. If ENCRYPT, token data is encrypted and authenticated in the cache. If the value is not one of these options or empty, auth_token will raise an exception on initialization.
revocation_cache_time = 10 (IntOpt) Determines the frequency at which the list of revoked tokens is retrieved from the Identity service (in seconds). A high number of revocation events combined with a low cache duration may significantly reduce performance.
signing_dir = None (StrOpt) Directory used to cache files related to PKI tokens
token_cache_time = 300 (IntOpt) In order to prevent excessive effort spent validating tokens, the middleware caches previously-seen tokens for a configurable duration (in seconds). Set to -1 to disable caching completely.

Table 10.2. Description of common configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
deferred_auth_method = password (StrOpt) Select deferred auth method, stored password or trusts.
environment_dir = /etc/heat/environment.d (StrOpt) The directory to search for environment files.
event_purge_batch_size = 10 (IntOpt) Controls how many events will be pruned whenever a stack's events exceed max_events_per_stack. Set this lower to keep more events at the expense of more frequent purges.
host = localhost (StrOpt) Name of the engine node. This can be an opaque identifier. It is not necessarily a hostname, FQDN, or IP address.
instance_driver = heat.engine.nova (StrOpt) Driver to use for controlling instances.
instance_user = ec2-user (StrOpt) The default user for new instances. This option is deprecated and will be removed in the Juno release. If it's empty, Heat will use the default user set up with your cloud image (for OS::Nova::Server) or 'ec2-user' (for AWS::EC2::Instance).
keystone_backend = heat.common.heat_keystoneclient.KeystoneClientV3 (StrOpt) Fully qualified class name to use as a keystone backend.
lock_path = None (StrOpt) Directory to use for lock files.
memcached_servers = None (ListOpt) Memcached servers or None for in process cache.
periodic_interval = 60 (IntOpt) Seconds between running periodic tasks.
plugin_dirs = /usr/lib64/heat, /usr/lib/heat (ListOpt) List of directories to search for plug-ins.
memcached_servers = None (ListOpt) Optionally specify a list of memcached server(s) to use for caching. If left undefined, tokens will instead be cached in-process.
heat_revision = unknown (StrOpt) Heat build revision. If you would prefer to manage your build revision separately, you can move this section to a different file and add it as another config option.

Table 10.3. Description of crypt configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
auth_encryption_key = notgood but just long enough i think (StrOpt) Encryption key used for authentication info in database.

Table 10.4. Description of database configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
backend = sqlalchemy (StrOpt) The back end to use for the database.
connection = None (StrOpt) The SQLAlchemy connection string to use to connect to the database.
connection_debug = 0 (IntOpt) Verbosity of SQL debugging information: 0=None, 100=Everything.
connection_trace = False (BoolOpt) Add Python stack traces to SQL as comment strings.
db_inc_retry_interval = True (BoolOpt) If True, increases the interval between database connection retries up to db_max_retry_interval.
db_max_retries = 20 (IntOpt) Maximum database connection retries before error is raised. Set to -1 to specify an infinite retry count.
db_max_retry_interval = 10 (IntOpt) If db_inc_retry_interval is set, the maximum seconds between database connection retries.
db_retry_interval = 1 (IntOpt) Seconds between database connection retries.
idle_timeout = 3600 (IntOpt) Timeout before idle SQL connections are reaped.
max_overflow = None (IntOpt) If set, use this value for max_overflow with SQLAlchemy.
max_pool_size = None (IntOpt) Maximum number of SQL connections to keep open in a pool.
max_retries = 10 (IntOpt) Maximum db connection retries during startup. Set to -1 to specify an infinite retry count.
min_pool_size = 1 (IntOpt) Minimum number of SQL connections to keep open in a pool.
mysql_sql_mode = TRADITIONAL (StrOpt) The SQL mode to be used for MySQL sessions. This option, including the default, overrides any server-set SQL mode. To use whatever SQL mode is set by the server configuration, set this to no value. Example: mysql_sql_mode=
pool_timeout = None (IntOpt) If set, use this value for pool_timeout with SQLAlchemy.
retry_interval = 10 (IntOpt) Interval between retries of opening a SQL connection.
slave_connection = None (StrOpt) The SQLAlchemy connection string to use to connect to the slave database.
sqlite_db = oslo.sqlite (StrOpt) The file name to use with SQLite.
sqlite_synchronous = True (BoolOpt) If True, SQLite uses synchronous mode.
use_db_reconnect = False (BoolOpt) Enable the experimental use of database reconnect on connection lost.

Table 10.5. Description of logging configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
backdoor_port = None (StrOpt) Enable eventlet backdoor. Acceptable values are 0, <port>, and <start>:<end>, where 0 results in listening on a random tcp port number; <port> results in listening on the specified port number (and not enabling backdoor if that port is in use); and <start>:<end> results in listening on the smallest unused port number within the specified range of port numbers. The chosen port is displayed in the service's log file.
disable_process_locking = False (BoolOpt) Enables or disables inter-process locks.

Table 10.6. Description of load balancer configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
loadbalancer_template = None (StrOpt) Custom template for the built-in loadbalancer nested stack.

Table 10.7. Description of logging configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
debug = False (BoolOpt) Print debugging output (set logging level to DEBUG instead of default WARNING level).
default_log_levels = amqp=WARN, amqplib=WARN, boto=WARN, qpid=WARN, sqlalchemy=WARN, suds=INFO, oslo.messaging=INFO, iso8601=WARN, requests.packages.urllib3.connectionpool=WARN (ListOpt) List of logger=LEVEL pairs.
fatal_deprecations = False (BoolOpt) Enables or disables fatal status of deprecations.
instance_format = "[instance: %(uuid)s] " (StrOpt) The format for an instance that is passed with the log message.
instance_uuid_format = "[instance: %(uuid)s] " (StrOpt) The format for an instance UUID that is passed with the log message.
log_config_append = None (StrOpt) The name of a logging configuration file. This file is appended to any existing logging configuration files. For details about logging configuration files, see the Python logging module documentation.
log_date_format = %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S (StrOpt) Format string for %%(asctime)s in log records. Default: %(default)s .
log_dir = None (StrOpt) (Optional) The base directory used for relative --log-file paths.
log_file = None (StrOpt) (Optional) Name of log file to output to. If no default is set, logging will go to stdout.
log_format = None (StrOpt) DEPRECATED. A logging.Formatter log message format string which may use any of the available logging.LogRecord attributes. This option is deprecated. Please use logging_context_format_string and logging_default_format_string instead.
logging_context_format_string = %(asctime)s.%(msecs)03d %(process)d %(levelname)s %(name)s [%(request_id)s %(user_identity)s] %(instance)s%(message)s (StrOpt) Format string to use for log messages with context.
logging_debug_format_suffix = %(funcName)s %(pathname)s:%(lineno)d (StrOpt) Data to append to log format when level is DEBUG.
logging_default_format_string = %(asctime)s.%(msecs)03d %(process)d %(levelname)s %(name)s [-] %(instance)s%(message)s (StrOpt) Format string to use for log messages without context.
logging_exception_prefix = %(asctime)s.%(msecs)03d %(process)d TRACE %(name)s %(instance)s (StrOpt) Prefix each line of exception output with this format.
publish_errors = False (BoolOpt) Enables or disables publication of error events.
syslog_log_facility = LOG_USER (StrOpt) Syslog facility to receive log lines.
use_stderr = True (BoolOpt) Log output to standard error.
use_syslog = False (BoolOpt) Use syslog for logging. Existing syslog format is DEPRECATED during I, and will change in J to honor RFC5424.
use_syslog_rfc_format = False (BoolOpt) (Optional) Enables or disables syslog rfc5424 format for logging. If enabled, prefixes the MSG part of the syslog message with APP-NAME (RFC5424). The format without the APP-NAME is deprecated in I, and will be removed in J.
verbose = False (BoolOpt) Print more verbose output (set logging level to INFO instead of default WARNING level).

Table 10.8. Description of quota configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
max_events_per_stack = 1000 (IntOpt) Maximum events that will be available per stack. Older events will be deleted when this is reached. Set to 0 for unlimited events per stack.
max_nested_stack_depth = 3 (IntOpt) Maximum depth allowed when using nested stacks.
max_resources_per_stack = 1000 (IntOpt) Maximum resources allowed per top-level stack.
max_stacks_per_tenant = 100 (IntOpt) Maximum number of stacks any one tenant may have active at one time.
max_template_size = 524288 (IntOpt) Maximum raw byte size of any template.

Table 10.9. Description of Redis configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
host = (StrOpt) Host to locate redis.
password = None (StrOpt) Password for Redis server (optional).
port = 6379 (IntOpt) Use this port to connect to redis host.
ringfile = /etc/oslo/matchmaker_ring.json (StrOpt) Matchmaker ring file (JSON).

Table 10.10. Description of testing configuration options
Configuration option = Default value Description
fake_rabbit = False (BoolOpt) If passed, use a fake RabbitMQ provider.

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